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Kyle Stoudt

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FC: River Valley Civilizations | By: Kyle Stoudt

1: Table of Contents | p.2-3...............Mesopotamia p.4-5.........................Egypt p.6-7.........Indus River Valley p.8-9...............Ancient China

2: Mesopotamia

3: -A ruler of Mesopotamia by the name of hammurabi, created a set of 282 laws that were centered around "an eye for an eye". -Building supplies and other natural resources were very scarce, which made living difficult. | -Religious Leaders of Mesopotamia controlled the government. -Mesopotamians believed in many gods, instead of just one god. -Mesopotamians created the 60 second time unit that is still used today. -Once the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded they produced silt, which is a dark, rich soil. -The Mesopotamians used a written language called Cuneiform, which means 'wedge-shaped' -Slavery was a common thing this society, and was not frowned upon at all. -The religious leaders of Mesopotamia were the most power people. -Even though floods were not unusual in Mesopotamia, they still had long periods of little to no rain.

4: -Pharoahs are seen as gods, and rule as if they were kings. -Egyptians were polytheistic, which meant that they believed in more than one god, the sun god was one of the most important gods. | -mummification is the way the pharoahs and other upper class people were buried, lower class people were normally just buried in the sand. -Egypt's climate was very hot, and very dry, which made living more difficult. | Egypt

5: -The Nile River was the most common water source that most people used, also when it flooded it produced silt which made fertile soil. -Geometry is believed to have first been used by the Egyptians, it is said that they used geometry to help build the pyramids. -Pyramids were built as tombs for Pharoahs and their consorts. -The shape of the pyramids represent the primordal mound which the Egyptians believe earth was created from, also they are meant to like the descending rays of the sun. -Women were somewhat equal to men, the women's equality depended on on the women's social status. -Hieroglyphics were a series of pictures or symbols that stood for words and other sounds the Egyptians would use these to tell stories or other information.

6: -The Indus River Valley civilization was one of the first civilizations to plan a city on a grid system, means the streets run at right angles, forming a grid. -Every year the Indus River Valley has a monsoon, which is when the wind shifts in direction bringing different weather, either dry air or torrential down pours. -HIndu is the most common religion, it is polytheistic, meaning that they believe in more than one god, a major part of Hinduism is karma, which mean good begets good, and bad begets bad. -Rulers of these cities governed trade & religion, not military strength, there is not really any proof of warfare in these cities. | Indus River Valley

7: -The Himalaya Mountain Range, the Indus & Ganges River block the borders of the INdus River Valley, making it to be blocked off from other civilizations. -Sanskrit is the written language of the INdus River Valley people, it is written through a series of curves and straight lines, each symbol makes a different sound. -Architects of the Indus River Valley were some of the first people to create a sewage system. | -The government of the Indus River Valley people is still sort of a mystery, but we do know is that they had "Rajahs", this was the ruler of the city. -Women were not equal to men at all in this culture, men were allowed to goto school, but women were not. -Some towns had huge public baths, these may have been used for religious ceremonies.

8: -Ancestors are thought of very highly, they were thought to bring blessing or curses. -It was believed that you would not worship for your self but for the entire community. -Unlike any other communities of this time they created buildings out of wood, instead of stone or mud. | -The Emperor was recognized as the ruler of "All under heaven", but he was not completely in control. -Women's rights were very little, they were socially pressured, to dress the way men wanted them to dress, also they were not allowed to goto school and learn. -When the Yellow River(Huang He) floods it leaves behind loess, which is fertile soil and great for farming. -The written Chinese language has many ways to write words, and other characters, this is what can make reading and writing the language more difficult.

9: -The Chinese Empire built the Great Wall of China in the 5th century B.C., the wall was made to protect the empire from various nomadic groups, the wall is 31,000 mi. long and completely made by hand. -Irrigation was new technology for this time, they used a system called a chain pump, powered by manual foot pedals, and hydraulic water wheels. -A large trade commodity for China was silk, people form all over would pay anything for this soft, shiny fabric. | Ancient China

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