FC: My Periodic Table Family Album | By: Aquillah Roberson Mrs. Smith-Brown 2nd Period October 22, 2011
1: The Order of Things | -How we got started? (The History) -What we're made of? (Subatomic Particles) -Battle of Arrangements (Lewis and Bohr Models) -Take Notes (Orbital Notation) -The Parts Of The Family (Individual Families) -How to understand us? (Reading and Understanding of the Periodic Table) -The Trends (Ionization Energy, Atomic Radius, Electronegativity)
2: How we got started? The Family History | Above is a picture of Antoine Lavoisier. He was a French scientist which made a list of 33 elements placed into four groups in the late 1700s. Most of his elements are on the modern periodic table. | Above is a picture of John Newlands. He was an English Chemist who in 1864 attempted to organize the known elements. He arranged the elements in repeated sets of eights calling it the Law of Octaves. This method soon failed because it didn't apply to all elements.
3: (Continued) | Above is a picture of Julius Lothar Meyer. He was a German Chemist who arranged 28 elements according to atomic weight in 1869. These elements were placed in 6 families because of their similarities in chemical/physical characteristics. | Above is a picture of Dmitri Mendeleev. He was a Russian chemist who used the increasing atomic mass to arrange elements into columns with similar properties from 1869-1890. His periodic table also predicted the existence of other elements. | Above is a picture of Henry Moseley. He was an English Chemist who discovered the elements have a different number of protons in the nucleus in 1913. This was the discovery of the atomic number and the set up of the modern day periodic table.
4: What we're made of? The Subatomic Particles | Every element is made up subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, electrons, and quarks. Protons are positive one charged particles located in an element's nucleus. Neutrons are neutral particles located in an element's nucleus. Electrons are negative one charged particles located around an element's nucleus. Quarks are the basic units of subatomic particles.
5: Uncle Lewis and Uncle Bohr Electron Arrangement | Gilbert N. Lewis was an American chemist who in 1902 developed the Lewis-Dot model. This model used dots to show the exact location of valence electrons (electrons on the last energy level) in elements. | Niels Bohr was an Danish Physicist who in 1913 developed a structure that explained the arrangement of every electron in an element. He stated that electrons circled the nucleus on rings with specific amounts. Later his explanation was rejected as scientists soon discovered that it is impossible to state the exact arrangement of electrons
6: Take Notes Orbital Notation | Electrons are organized into principal energy levels. There up to seven of these levels. Each of this principal energy levels have sub-levels called orbitals. The principal quantum number describes the sub-levels, types of orbitals, and number of sub-levels. On principal quantum number 1, there is a s-orbital with one sub-level, 1s, which can hold up to two electrons. On principal quantum number 2, there is a s-orbital and p- orbital. The p-orbital can hold up to six electrons with three sub-levels: 2px, 2py, and 2pz, which can hold up to two electrons each. On principal quantum number 3, there is a s-orbital, p- orbital, and d-orbital. The d-orbital can hold up to ten electrons with five sub-levels: 3dxy, 3dxz, 3dyz, 3dx2-y2, and 3dz, which can hold up to two electrons each. On principal quantum number 4, there is a s-orbital, p- orbital, d-orbital, and f-orbital. The f-orbital can hold up to fourteen electrons with seven even sub-levels all beginning with 4d that can hold up to two electrons each. Though the orbitals are known it is impossible to know exactly where eletrons are located. This is called Heisenberg's Uncertainty Rule.
7: (Continued) | Below on the left, there is chart of the method used when writing down electron configuration and orbital notation. On the right is an example of Electron Configuration and Orbital Notation which follows the same process explained on the previous page, and uses the principal quantum number, orbital letter, and a superscript to describe the number of electrons. The Orbital Notation is the configuration written in an arrangement of arrows that follow the Hund's Rule, which states electrons must go up in each orbital before filling it by going downward.
8: The Breakdown Individual Parts of the Family
9: (Continued) | Families or groups are vertical columns of elements with similar chemical properties and in some cases, valence electrons. Periods are horizontal rows of elements with the same number of electron shells. Groups one, two, and hydrogen all have filled or partially filled s-orbitals. Transition Metals group 3-12 all have filled are partially filled d-orbitals. Groups 13-18 all have filled or partially filled p-orbitals. The Lanthanide and Actinide series have filled or partially filled f-orbitals. These are considered Inner Transition Metals.
10: The Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals S-orbitals | The Alkali Metals are located in the first group on the periodic table. Most of these metals are silverly, with low melting points, soft, easily malleable. and have a low densities (Physical properties). Most of the elements in this group such as Lithium(Li), Sodium(Na), Potassium(K), Rubidium(b), and Cesium(Cs) react with Halogens and Oxygen violently (Chemical Properties). Although Hydrogen is located in this group it is not considered an Alkali Metals. Hydrogen and Helium, which is located in Group 18, both have s-orbital levels.
11: Uses ofElements in the S-Orbital 1) Na (Sodium)- Table Salt 2) Sr (Strontium)- Toothpaste 3) Ca (Calcium)- Gypsum in Drywall 4) K (Potassium)-Inks 5) H (Hydrogen)- Balloons | (Continued) | Alkaline Earth Metals are located in the second group on the periodic table. Most of these metals are silvery-white, with high melting and boiling point when compared to Alkali Metals (Physical Properties). These metals also form a thin oxide coating when exposed to oxygen, and Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, and Barium react with Halogens to form salts (Chemical Properties).
12: Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Halogen, and Noble Gas Groups P -Orbitals | The Boron Group is the thirteenth group on the Periodic Table. Most of the elements in the group except Boron are silvery-white, metals, lightweight, and soft (Physical Properties). Boron is a Metaliod, hard, and black. Boron(B), Aluminum(Al), Gallium(Ga), Indium(In), and Thallium(Tl) react with oxygen to form metal oxides (Chemical Properties). | The Carbon group is the fourteenth group on the Periodic Table. Carbon is a soft, black powdered nonmetal. Silicon(Si) and Germanium(Ge) are metalliods. Silicon can be a powder or solid while Germanium is a gray-white solid Tin(Sn) and Lead(Pb) are metals. The melting point and boiling point decrease in a descending order while densities increase (Physical Properties). All the elements in this group are not reactive at room temperature, But when reactions do occur they are at increased temperatures (Chemical Properties).
13: (Continued) | Group No. and Name 15 and The Nitrogen Group Elements Nitrogen(N) Phosphorus(P) Arsenic(As) Antimony(Sb) Bismuth(Bi) Chemical & Physical Properties 1) Boiling Points increase in a descending order 2) Densities increase in a descending order 3) N & P are nonmetals, As and Sb are metalliods, Bi is a metal 4) Metallic characteristics increase in a descending order 5) P, As, Sb, and Bi react with halogens to form trihalides | Group No. and Name 16 and The Oxygen Group Elements Oxygen(O) Sulfur(S) Selenium(Se) Tellurium(Te) Polonium(Po) Chemical & Physical Properties 1) Boiling Points increase in a descending order (except Po) 2) Densities increase in a descending order 3) O, S, & Se are nonmetals, Te and Po are metalliods 4) Melting points increase in a descending order (except Po) 5) O, S, Se, Te, and Po react with halogens to form halides | Group No. and Name 17 and The Halogens Elements Fluorine(F) Chlorine(Cl) Bromine(Br) Iodine(I) Astatine(At) Chemical & Physical Properties 1) Boiling Points increase in a descending order 2) Florine and Chlorine are gases at room temperature 3) F, Cl, Br, & I are nonmetals, At is a metalliods 4) Melting points increase in a descending order 5) Halogens react with alkali and alkaline earth metals to form salts
14: (Continued) | Group No. and Name 18 and The Noble Gases Elements Neon(Ne) Argon(Ar) Krypton(Kr) Xenon(Xe) Radon(Rn) Chemical & Physical Properties 1) Boiling Points increase in a descending order 2) All the elements in this group are colorless and odorless 3) All the elements in this group are nonmetals 4) Melting points increase in a descending order 5) These elements do not react with other groups because it has a full level of valence electons | Uses of Elements in the P-Orbitals 1) B (Boron)- Laundry Detergent 2) Pb (Lead)- Gasoline 3) Bi (Bismuth)- Peptobizmo 4) Se (Selenium)-Photocopies 5) F (Fluorine)- Toothpaste 6) Ne (Neon)- Light | Note: Helium is apart of the Noble Gases but it has a s-orbital not a p-orbital that is why it is not included above Neon.
15: Transition Metals D-Orbital | From Left to right column Group 3 Scandium(Sc) Ytrium(Y) Lanthanium(La) Actinium(Ac) Group 4 Titanium(Ti) Zirconium(Zr) Hafnium(Hf) Rutherfordium(Rf) Group 5 Vanadiumn(V) Niobium(Nb) Tantalum(Ta) Dubnium(Db) Group 6 Chromium(Cr) Molybdenum(Mo) Tungsten(W) Seaborgium(Sg) | Group 7 Manganese(Mn) Technetium(Tc) Rhenium(Re) Bohrium(Bh) Group8 Iron(Fe) Ruthenium(Ru) Osmium(Os) | Hassium(Hs) Group 9 Cobalt(Co) Rhodium(Rh) Iridium(Ir) Meirnerium(Mt) Group 10 Nickel(Ni) Palladium(Pd) | Platinum(Pt) Darmstadtium(Ds) Group 11 Copper(Cu) Silver(Ag) Gold(Au) Roentgenium(Rg) Group 12 Zinc(Zn) | Cadmium(Cd) Mercury(Hg)
16: (Continued) | Chemical and Physical Properties 1) Transtition Metals are good conductors of electricity. 2) Transtition Metals are malleable. 3) Transtition Metals have High densities. 4) Transtition Metals form soluions called alloys. 5)Transtition Metals mostly react with oxygen. | Uses of Elements in the D-Orbitals 1) Cu (Copper)- Microchips 2) Fe (Iron)- Paint 3) Ti (Titanium)- Ship 4) Hg (Mercury)- Batteries 5) Au (Gold)- Earrings | The Statue of Liberty in New York is made of Copper.
17: Inner Transition Metals F-Orbital | Lanthanide Series Actinide Series | (Left to Right) Lanthanide Series Cerium(Ce) Praseodymium(Pr) Neodymium(Nd) Promethium(Pm) Samarium(Sm) Europium(Eu) Gadolinium(Gd) Terbium(Tb) Dysprosium(Dy) Holmium(Ho) Erbium(Er) Thulium(Tm) Ytterbium(Yb) Lutetium(Lu) | Actinide Series Thorium(Th) Protactinium(Pa) Uranium(U) Neptunium(Np) Plutonium(Pu) Americium(Am) Curium(Cm) Berkelium(Bk) Californium(Cf) Einsteinium(Es) Fermium(Fm) Mendelevium(Md) Nobelium(No) Lawrencium(Lr) | Chemical and Physical Properties 1) Inner Transition Metals are rare earth metals. 2) Inner Transition Metals are ductile. 3) Inner Transition Metals have High densities. 4) Inner Transition Metals form solutions called alloys. 5) Actinide Series metals are highly reactive. | Uses of Elements in the F-Orbitals 1) Ce (Cerium)- Strong Magnets 2) Pu (Plutonium)- Nuclear Weapons 3) Nd (Neodymium)- Glass Coloring 4) Sm (Samarium)- Optic Glass 5) Tm (Thulium)- X-rays
18: Understanding the Periodic Table | Families or groups are vertical columns of elements with similar chemical properties and in some cases, valence electrons. Periods are horizontal rows of elements with the same number of electron shells. The number on top of the element is the atomic number which is the number of protons, and electrons in the eement. The number beneath the element's symbol is the atomic mass and with it is subtrated from the atomic number it presents the number of neutrons.
19: The Trends | Ionization Energy is the energy needed to remove an electron from a gasoues element. On The Periodic table this increases by Period (left to right) and decreases by group. Electronegativity is the anility for element's atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond. The usually decreases descendingky in each group and increases across a period (left to right) . Atomic Radius is the measure of the atom. The usually increases descendingky in each group and decreases across a period (left to right).
20: Work Cited Page | 1) undefined. (n.d). Julius Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev. In Chemistry in History. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/chemistry-in-history/themes/the-path-to-the-periodic-table/meyer-and-mendeleev.aspx. 2) undefined. (June 15, 2009). Quarks. In Virtual Visitor Center. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/quarks.html. 3) undefined. (October 22, 2011). Niels Bohr. In Lucidcafe. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95oct/nbohr.html. 4) SparkNotes Editors. (n.d.). SparkNote on Atomic Structure. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/fundamentals/atomicstructure/ 5) Buthelezi, T,. Dingrando, L., Hainen, N .,Wistrom, C., Zike, D. (2008). Chemistry: Matter and Change.. Columbus:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
21: The End