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Oregon Trail

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FC: LEARN ABOUT THE OREGON TRAIL

1: The Oregon Trail By: Bowie,Savannah Ryan

2: Dedication Page We dedicate this page to Mr.Herzog for giving us the opportunity to work in this great lab!!!!!!!!!

3: Table of Contents Pages 4-7 Native Americans on the Trail Pages 8-9 Dieaseas and Hardships Pages 10-19 Cites Along the Way Pages 12-16 Provisions Pages 20-25 Afican Americans on the Trail Pages 26-28 Women on the Trail Page 29 Works/ Images Cited

4: The Oregon Trail had two major Native American tribes- the Cheyenne to the north and the Pawnee to the south.

5: The emigrants worried about both. But the expected attacks did not come. In fact, there were many instances of Native American kindness--helping pull out stuck wagons; rescuing drowning emigrants; even rounding up lost cattle.

6: Most of the encounters with Native Americans were simple business transactions. The emigrants offered clothes, tobacco or rifles, in exchange for Native American horses or food.

7: Historical studies show that between 1840-1860 that Indians killed 362 emigrants, but that emigrants killed 426 Indians. Shoshone Native Americans where also on the Oregon Trail. | The Native Americans kept a very close eye on the emigrants.

8: Cholera was one of the diseases that people got on the Oregon Trail. These are the side effects; diarrhea,vomiting, muscle cramps, thirst, weakness, increased heart rate, reduced urine production, coma, and even death.

9: Hardships There was a lot of different challenges for the people that were going west on the Oregon Trail. | Walking on the Oregon Trail was one of the easiest hardships. | Going over the moutains | And crossing the rivers

10: Thousands of emigrants camped for days, or weeks while getting ready to begin the journey. | Two-hundred miles from St. Louis, the Missouri River takes a cruel turn to the north.

11: Pioneers unloaded their wagons stopping at a couple towns near the Missouri river which they called "Jumping off places".

12: Wagons needed to be strong enough to carry loads up to 2,500 pounds, yet light enough not to strain the draft animals that pulled it.

13: It's hard to imagine pushing a fully loaded wheelbarrow for 2,000 miles, but several dozen people tried. | Weird Wagons

14: Mules are strong, can go faster, but are often tricky to handle. Mules also had tendencies to bolt and become unruly. Oxen are slower, but more reliable and tougher than mules. They will eat poor grass. Oxen were very strong and could haul fully-loaded wagons up ravines or drag them out of mudholes. A large wagon needed at least three pairs of oxen to pull it.

15: Family of four would need 600 lbs. of flour, 120 lbs. of biscuits, 400 lbs. of bacon, 60 lbs. of coffee, 4 lbs. of tea, 100 lbs. of sugar, and 200 lbs. of lard. These would just be the basic staples. Other food items could include sacks of rice and beans, plus dried peaches and apples. Bacon was often hauled in large barrels packed in bran so the hot sun would not melt the fat.

16: Pioneers needed wagons strong enough to haul people and supplies for five months or more. To outlast the rugged trail and months of wear, the wagon needed to be constructed of seasoned hardwood. Most pioneers used the typical farm wagon with a canvas cover stretched over hooped frames. A family of four could manage with a single wagon.

17: St.Louis | It was the last big city most would ever see. The wide Missouri River headed due west from St. Louis, so most loaded their wagons onto steamships for the upstream journey. | It was the last big city most would ever see. The wide Missouri River headed due west from St. Louis, so most loaded their wagons onto steamships for the upstream journey. | St.Louis

18: This stands 325 feet above the plain, but during the time of the migration, Chimney Rock was substantially higher. | Many considered it the eighth wonder of the world. In their enthusiasm, some tried to climb the massive rock but none got higher than the base.

19: A few miles west of Independence Rock, the Sweetwater threads it way through a narrow canyon called Devils Gate. | Women camped at this point and climbed to the top of the ridge above the gorge

20: African Americans on the Trail Rose Jackson Rose came west as a slave to the Allen family in 1849. Since the Allens knew of the exclusion laws in the Oregon Territory, they planned to leave her behind, but she begged to accompany the family. However, since it was illegal to bring slaves into Oregon, they were forced to smuggle Rose across the length of the Oregon Trail in a box with air holes drilled in it. Rose came out only at night to stretch and get a breath of fresh air.

21: Rose Jackson had a husband later on.

22: William Livingston was born in Missouri and was a childhood friend of Samuel Clemens (better known as Mark Twain). He was later sold to Judge Ringo, who freed him during the Civil War in 1863. The following year, Livingston came to Oregon with Ringo's son.

23: He worked at many different jobs through the years, but he maintained a friendship with the Ringo family and the respect of the communities in which he lived. He worked at a lumber mill until he'd saved enough money to start his own business. | Mark Twain : childhood friend of William Livingston

24: Moses Harris was a wagon train guide, he helped many in need of getting places. | Here lies the bones of old Black Harris who often traveled beyond the far west and for the freedom of Equal rights he crossed the snowy mountain heights. He was a free and easy kind of soul especially with a Belly full.

25: This is a poem about Moses Harris

26: The women on the trail sometimes only had a few weeks to get ready to go. | WOMEN ON THE TRAIL

27: Women on the trail could delay the time they would go on the Oregon Trail but they could not stop their husbend from going.

28: Women had to work all the time! They would have done all of the chores, cooking, and taking care of the ill. | WOMEN ON THE TRAIL CON.

29: Woks/ Images Cited Black Pioneers and Settlers." Welcome to the Frontpage. 04 June 2009 . Chorlera. 8 June 2009 . Chorlera. 8 June 2009 . Chorlera Symtoms. 8 June 2009 . "Devils Gate on the Oregon-Trail." Idaho State University. 04 June 2009 . Digital image. 8 June 2009 . Digital image. 5 June 2009 . Digital image. 5 June 2009 . Digital image. 5 June 2009 . Digital image. 5 June 2009 . Digital image. 4 June 2009 . Digital image. 4 June 2009 . Digital image. 4 June 2009 . Digital image. 4 June 2009 . Digital image. 4 June 2009 . "

30: Hardships on the Oregon-Trail." Idaho State University. 04 June 2009 . "Jumping Off on the Oregon-Trail." Idaho State University. 04 June 2009 < http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Jumpingoff.html>. "Jumping Off on the Oregon-Trail." Idaho State University. 04 June 2009 . Mattes, Merrill. "Chimney Rock." 4 June 2009. "National Oregon/California Trail Center Historical Trails Trail Basics." National Oregon/California Trail Center at Montpelier, Idaho. 04 June 2009 . "National Oregon/California Trail Center Historical Trails Trail Basics." National Oregon/California Trail Center at Montpelier, Idaho. 04 June 2009 . "National Oregon/California Trail Center Historical Trails Trail Basics." National Oregon/California Trail Center at Montpelier, Idaho. 04 June 2009 . "Support Services Oregon Trail." Oregon.gov Home Page. 04 June 2009 . "Weird Wagons on the Oregon-Trail." Idaho State University. 04 June 2009 . Women. 8 June 2009 . Women on the oregon trail. 5 June 2009 .

31: http://collaborationnation.wikispaces.com/file/view/Women+on+the+Oregon+Trail.doc.>. Women walking on the oregon trail. 8 June 2009

32: Thank you for reading our mixbook by:Bowie, Ryan, and Savannah!!!!

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