S: Putting the Pieces Back Together
BC: Political Cartoon | This cartoon shows a rather large President Andrew Johnson kicking a bureau down a flight of stairs. The Bureau also has the word "freedmen" inscribed on the front of it with tiny black men falling out of the bureau. Above the President there is a sign on the building which reads "The Veto". This political cartoon is describing Andrew Johnson's decision to veto a bill that would have increased the power that the Freedmen's Bureau had. The picture also shows that Johnson was a more powerful or bigger than the tiny black people that are falling out of the tumbling bureau. the cartoon is portraying Johnson's unfair and unwise use of power.
FC: Putting the Pieces Back Together: A Plan for Reconstructing Gampistan By: Alixe Wiley & Danielle Brown
1: Proposal For Mr. President | Proposal For Mr. President | Dear Mr. President, It is evident that you have been elected amidst a situation of turmoil in the nation of Gampistan and have been left both aimless and burdened with the responsibility of piecing this nation back together. Therefore, we of Gampistan's Congressional branch have decided to assist you by compiling an analysis of the American Reconstruction Era as a way to guide you towards success. We believe that by studying American history, you will be able to learn from the past mistakes of men before you and build upon your own ideas for the rebuilding of this nation. It is vital that you select influential people to help lead this country towards a bright and progressive future, as well as establish basic civil rights for every and all peoples existing in Gampistan. Furthermore, you must create laws that will remain forever true and just. We of Congress trust your judgement and wish you the best of luck in your creation of a reconstruction proposal. | Pg. 2-7, 10, 15-16 -- Danielle Brown Pg. 8-14, 17 -- Alixe Wiley
2: The Proposals | Created during the Civil War, by Abraham Lincoln, it decreed that a state could be reinstated into the Union when 10 percent of the 1860 vote count from that state took an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step in the process would be for the states to formally create a new state constitution. It also had to abolish slavery forever. This plan, if put into effect, would offer a moderate period of peace by compromising between both the North and the South. This policy would also further plans for the emancipation of oppressed peoples in Gampistan by insisting that the new governments abolished slavery in ever state that desired to rejoin the Union. | 10% Plan | 10% Plan | The Proposals
3: 1866-1873 Republicans in Congress took control of Reconstruction policies after the election of 1866. Johnson ignored the policy mandate, and he openly encouraged southern states to deny to ratify the 14th Amendment. Radical Republicans in Congress believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War. Led by Pennsylvania representative Thaddeus Stevens and Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner, they opened the way to suffrage for male freedmen. They were generally in control and vigorously opposed Andrew Johnson's lenient policies, although they had to compromise with the moderate Republicans (the Democrats in Congress had almost no power). If Gampistan were to put Radical Reconstruction into effect, black codes and other actions that intervened with black people’s rights would be ignored. The Reconstruction Act of March 1867 would disregard the independent state governments that existed in the West of Gampistan, divided the West into five districts, and place them under military rule. Escape from permanent military government would be open to those states that established civil governments, took an oath of allegiance, ratified the 14th Amendment and adopted black suffrage. | Radical Reconstruction | Radical Reconstrustion
4: Presidential Reconstruction, 1863-1866, was controlled by Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, with the goal of quickly reuniting the country. It's aid begun with the Emancipation Proclamation. President Lincoln chose Andrew Johnson, a Democratic senator from Tennessee, to be his Vice President, hoping that by selecting Johnson he would appeal to Southerners. He railed against "slaveocracy" and a bloated "southern aristocracy”. Following Lincoln's assassination, Johnson believed the Southern states should decide the course that was best for them. He also felt that African-Americans were unable to manage their own lives and did not deserve to vote. This form of Reconstrution would not be beneficial towards Gampistan because it would return all property to Western members of Gampistan who pledged loyalty to the Union and agreed to support the 13th Amendment. This would be too lenient and too easy of a plan that would allow ex-Union members to rejoin Gampistan without punishment for their acts in the Civil War. | Presidential Reconstruction | Presidential Reconstruction
5: Many former Western Gampistan leaders would regain their Congressional seniority, meaning very few Western leaders would be persecuted. White Gampistan members would attempt to subjugate enslaved Gampistanians through the use of harsh, oppressive laws (similar to black codes. Radical Eastern Gampistanians would probably want the rights promised in the Declaration of Independence extended to include all free men, including those who were formerly slaves.
6: Carpetbaggers was a derogatory term Southerners gave to Northerners (also referred to as Yankees) who moved to the South during the Reconstruction era. The term referred to the observation that these Northerners tended to carry carpet bags, which were a common type of luggage at the time. It suggested opportunism and exploitation by the outsiders. The relocated northerners (or carpet baggers) often formed alliances with freed slaves and southern white Republicans. Together they are said to have politically manipulated and controlled former Confederate states for varying periods for their own financial and power gains. In sum, carpetbaggers were seen as sinister outsiders with questionable objectives meddling in local politics, buying up plantations at fire-sale prices and taking advantage of Southerners. The usage of derogatory terms should be avoided if at all possible in Gampistan. It would only encourage separatism within the nation and fuel the distrust between Western and Eastern Gampistanians. | Carpetbaggers | Carpetbaggers
7: The 13th amendment officially abolished slavery and involuntary servitude (except as a crime punishment). Ratification was complete on December 6, 1865. The 14th amendment was ratified on July 9, 1868. It is composed of 3 main clauses. The Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving people of life, liberty, and/or property which certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. The Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. The Citizenship clause reversed the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision make all people born or naturalized in the US, citizens of the US (not property). The 15th amendment was ratified on February 3, 1870 and prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen suffrage based on a person’s race, color, or previous condition of servitude". Amendments such as these should definitely be enacted and enforced by Gampistan's government in order to protect the rights of all members of the nation (mostly, the oppressed members). Without these laws, white Gampistanians would continue to oppress black Gampistanians. | 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments | 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
8: Following the incompetent Andrew Johnson, former Civil War general Ulysses S. Grant was elected into office as a Republican President. He remained in command of the armed forces and often sent in troops to protect African Americans from the violent acts of the Ku Klux Klan, as well as white mob attacks. Grant supported the ratification of the 15th amendment, which would give black citizens the right to vote. Furthermore, he planned to hold government elections featuring black voters and candidates in 1867. A man like Ulysses S. Grant would be a great aid to Gampistan's Reconstruction by controlling military operations in resisting areas and supporting laws that would give black Americans their rights. | Two Presidents | When Grant was President during the Panic of 1873, a time of economic depression, he became known for dismissing the corrupt behavior of his cabinet members, who were chosen on the basis of trust and familiarity as opposed to experience and skill level. This political corruption should be avoided in the nation of Gampistan order to keep the vote from the public and maintain a good reputation.
9: One Problem | Andrew Johnson took office as a Democratic president in 1864 after the unexpected assassination of Lincoln. He was then left with the responsibility of creating a policy that would decide how the Union would be reconstructed after the Civil War. Johnson supported the idea of creating a plan that would allow the Southern states to rejoin the Union easily, an idea that would neglect the rights of former slaves. Republicans (at the time, they were considered radical) attempted to pass reconstruction bills, which were often vetoed by Johnson. They then began to take initiative without the approval of the President, which resulted in Johnson firing the Secretary of State in an attempt to stop the Republican’s plans. This action violated the Tenure of Office Act, which prevented the President from removing cabinet members. | The lenient plans of President Johnson should be avoided and would only serve to easily admit Western states that were not entirely loyal to Gampistan. Also, a man like Andrew Johnson would never approve of the civil rights given to oppressed Gampistanians and would not work well with Gampistan's Congressional body.
10: Black Codes were unofficial laws that limited the basic human rights and civil liberties of newly freed African Americans during the Reconstruction period. They were used to labor migration and other activities on newly freed slaves. Codes such as these would only reflect the unwillingness of many white Gampistanians to accept black Gampistanians as equals. These codes would bring about unfair oppression. | Things To Avoid | Things To Avoid | The Panic of 1873 was an event of economic depression in both Europe and the United States. When the demand in silver decreased in Germany, the economies of several nations were severally damaged. The silver industry was one of the largest employers besides agriculture and many miners relied on profits made from mining silver. The Coinage Act of 1873 was put into effect as a way to de facto gold standards. This crisis prevented the boom in railroad construction from progressing, as well as hurt the economy. Gampistan should not rely on a risk business like mining and instead focus on industrial pursuits and exports.
11: The KKK was an organization was established in Tennessee by a group of Confederate veterans in 1865. They became a vast terrorist organization that opposed many of the social and political changes that occurred during Reconstruction. Although they originally were not a hate group, they acted violently towards anyone who was not a white, Protestant American, blacks in particular. This group would be negative to Gampistan's Reconstruction because it would create local, independent groups of white Gampistanians who woulc commit acts of violence and terror. Even the Democrats in America did not want to be associated with their criminal acts (which would tarnish their reputation). If this group were to come about in Gampistan, an act similar to The Klan Act of 1871 would have to be put into effect as a way to dissolve the group or a Habeas Corpus would have to be issued. That would call for military interference to arrest the members accused of violence. This group should be avoided most of all because they would oppose any plans initiating radical changes. Also, they would not support the rights of blacks and would be the cause of terrorist attacks.
12: Influencial Republicans | In 1870 and 1871, Hiram Revels served as the first African American Senate member and U.S. Congress member. He represented the state of Mississippi as a Republican during the period of Reconstruction. Although he had little experience, Revels was intelligent and an eloquent speaker. Many Southern Democrats opposed to his election and argued that before the 14th amendment was ratified, Revels was not a free citizen of the United States (because of the Dred Scott Decision). In other words, he had not be a citizen long enough to serve. Republicans retorted back that Revels was not of full African blood and therefore was exempt from the law. During his time in office, Revels wanted to restore Southern loyalty to the Union. Electing black officials to the Gampistan government could prove to be benificial and would give African Americans their rightful participation in a democratic government. | Influencial Republican
13: A politician statesman and politician from Massachusetts, Charles Sumner was considered to be a radical Republican because of his ideas about Reconstruction. he believed that former Confederacy should be treated as conquered territories controlled by Congress and not as a part of the Union. Sumner advocated the rights of African Americans, which is evident in his proposal of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 (an act that suggested that blacks were entitled to the same treatment in public places). Also, Sumner rigorously prevented the ex-Confederates from gaining political offices. A man like Charles Sumner would be a positive aspect of Gampistan's Reconstruction because he would hold many modern beliefs and concepts involving the given rights of African Americans. He would be a strong ally to the Eastern Gampistanians and would make it difficult for Western Gampistanians to gain office and influence.
14: Civil Rights For African Americans | The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the foundation for the 14th amendment that would be drafted two years later. It stated that all people born in the United States are granted citizenship regardless of race of previous conditions. Besides protecting the rights of black Gampistanians, all white Gampistanians could be able to sue or be sued, represent a case in court, inherit, purchase, lease, or sell property, and enforce labor contracts if this act was implemented. This law would also positively contribute to the Reconstruction of Gampistan because it would give black Americans many societal rights gained through citizenship. | As previously mentioned, the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was proposed by Charles Sumner and Benjamin Butler (a fellow Republican politician) and passed in 1875. It was intended to provide equal treatment and accommodations to African Americans in public places. This law would, if enforced regularly, would be successful in Gampistan. What made it unsuccessful during American Reconstruction was that it was rarely enforced in Southern society and was later declared unconstitutional because it was regulating the conduct of citizens.
15: Sherman’s General Field Order 15 Special Field Order No. 15 was a military order issued following Sherman's March to the Sea on January 16, 1865, by General William Tecumseh Sherman. It provided for the confiscation of 400,000 acres of land along the Atlantic coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and dividing the land into 40-acre parcels, on which were to be settled by approximately 18,000 freed slave families and other blacks then living in the area. They were intended to address the immediate problem of dealing with the tens of thousands of black refugees who had joined Sherman's march in search of protection and sustenance. If this order were implemented in Gampistan, it would provide much land for black Gampistanians to settle, work, and flourish independently. It would have to be enforced heavily and protected so that Western Gampistanians would not take this land away from them. | Sherman's General Field Order 15
16: Port Royal Experiment The Port Royal Experiment was a program during the American Civil War in which former slaves successfully worked on the land abandoned by plantation owners. In 1861 the Union liberated the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbor, Port Royal. The white residents fled, leaving behind 10,000 black slaves. Several private Northern charity organizations stepped in to help the former slaves become self-sufficient. If this experiment were to take effect in Gampistan, the result would be positive. African Americans members of Gampistan would be able to demonstrate their ability to work the land efficiently and live independently of white control. They would assigned themselves daily tasks for cotton growing and spent their extra time cultivating their own crops, fishing and hunting. By selling their surplus crops, the locals acquired small amounts of property. If the experiment were not to be discontinued, then blacks could maintain control of the land and even found their own towns and settlements, preventing white Gampistanians from interfering with their lives.
17: The Amendments in Court | The U.S. v. Cruikshank case was very significant because it involved the newly established 14th amendment. After the Colfax Massacre, many black and white casualties were inflicted. The courts ruled that the indictment against white mob attacks under the Enforcement Act (an act which prevented white mobs from taking rights away from blacks) was faulty. Due process and equal protection under the 14th amendment was only applicable to states and not individuals. This would be a negative contribution to the Reconstruction of Gampistan because it would limit the rights of individuals under the 14th amendment and only apply to states as a whole. The Slaughterhouse Case was another Supreme Court case that dealt with protection under the 14th amendment. A group of butchers attempted to sue against a company that was leasing out property to safely butcher on without contaminating water supply. The butchers argued that they were being deprived of rights and due process because they couldn't get their own property. The courts ruled that the 14th amendment could not be broadly applied and only effected rights of citizenship. This would be a negative contribution to Reconstruction because it once again it would limit the rights of the individual under the amendments.