FC: Olivia Busillo and Tamar Jackson | Reconstruction Proposal
1: A Civil War has broken out over the issue of slavery before in America. The North and South went head to head over slavery just like the East and West have done in Terpakistan. In order to ensure that you pursue the best possible Reconstruction Plan, we are going to walk you through all of the people, places, and events that impacted the course of American Reconstruction, regardless of if they were for the better or for the worse. Having knowledge about these past successes and failures can help you to understand the proposal we have come up with.
2: The 10% Plan | This was a plan to remake regular government in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Lincoln created a plan to offer southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the United States and accepted the Union's proclamations in the concern of slavery. To enable states such as Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana the opportunity to re-enter into the Union, once 10 percent of the white male voters swore allegiance to the Union. Voters were able to elect delegates to draft constitutions written by the state and make new state governments. All southerners except for the wealthy Confederate army officers and government officials would be given a full pardon. Lincoln promised the Southerners that he would protect their private property but not the slaves. Lincoln's 10 percent plan in its essence was a fail. The republicans believed it was too mild and another bill was passed after his death. Instead of ending the war it was an attempt to make the South surrender. | (Tamar Jackson) | The following terms we will assess are plans/orders of Reconstruction that were set forward in America.
3: Radical Reconstruction | This was a three part plan created by the Radical Republicans who wanted to revolutionize Southern institutions, habits, and manners. First, was the prevention of the leaders of the Confederate from returning to power after the war. Second, they wanted Republican Party to become powerful institution in South. Third, they wanted the federal government to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteed the right to vote in the South. The everyday lives of blacks and poor whites barely changed. Radical Republicans in congress successfully passed rights in legislation, but Southerners just ignored the laws. New Southern governments that were formed created public schools, but received little funding. Also, the public schools were segregated and the blacks improved just a little. (Tamar Jackson) | Military Reconstruction Act | This act was also known as the Reconstruction Act. It was a bill used to lessen the amount of states that were seceding. The hope was to reduce the amount to no more than conquered territory, and dividing them into five military districts, that were governed by a Union General. Martial law was stated by Congress in each of the territories, where the troops were dealt with in order to keep the peace and protect the former slaves. Also stated by Congress, was that the Southern states needed to revise the constitutions, and make the Fourteenth Amendment official. Southern states were required to provide suffrage to the Blacks in order to be accepted into the Union. Republicans passed the second Reconstruction Act, to place Union troops at the voter registrations in order to further the the safety of the voting rights for former slaves. Due to President Johnson's vetoes of the act Congress was forced to override it. Afraid that the Supreme Court would say that the Military Reconstruction Act was unconstitutional they repealed the Habeas Corpus Acts of 1867. (Tamar Jackson)
4: Sherman's General Field Order 15 | These were military orders given during the Civil war in 1865, by General William Sherman. The order were in regards to the 400,000 acres of land along the Atlantic coast of South Carolina,Georgia, and Florida which was divided into 40 acre parcels. About 18,000 freed enslaved families and other Blacks in the area settled there. These orders occurred after Sherman's March to the Sea. The orders were made to take control of the problem of dealing with then tens of thousands of black refugees that took part in Sherman's march in search of help by having protection, and to assure the harmony of action in the area of operations". General Sherman made his orders after a meeting with twenty black ministers in Savannah, Georgia. Unfortunately Sherman's orders barely had an effect, because they were revoked by President Andrew Johnson in the fall. (Tamar Jackson)
5: Presidential Reconstruction | President Andrew Johnson set forth his restoration program and issued a new Proclamation of Amnesty to add on to an earlier on issued by Lincoln. He offered to pardon all former citizens of the Confederacy who were loyal to the Union and return their property. Confederate officers and political officials who owned property that was worth more than $20,000 were not included, but they could apply to the president themselves for forgiveness for their acts during the war. Johnson also issued a proclamation for North Carolina, and each former confederate state had to call a constitutional convention to withdraw its law of secession and ratify the 13th Amendment as well has reject Civil War debts. Former confederate states met Johnson's conditions and Southern states put together a new government and elected people to congress. Johnson granted pardons to many Southerners and by December 1865 the plan was in motion. Congress was angered because Southern voters began to elect former confederate officers and political leaders and radical and moderate Republicans voted to reject it. (Olivia Busillo)
6: Explained here are Amendments and Acts passed to help give rights to newly freed slaves. | The Thirteenth Amendment | The 13th Amendment was written in the constitution to declare that slavery, and involuntary servitude should not exist within the Unites States or any other place that had their jurisdiction. Except on terms of punishment for a crime that the person or persons were convicted of. This amendment was written in the essence of abolishing slavery in the United States. It was passed by Congress on January 31,1865 and passed by the states on December 6, 1865. (Tamar Jackson) | The Fourteenth Amendment | As one of the Reconstruction Amendments the 14th Amendment was used in 1865 on July 9th. Its goal was to make sure that the Civil Rights Act passed in 1866 would stay the same in making sure that all persons born in the United States...excluding Indians not taxed...." were citizens and were to be given "full and equal benefit of all laws." In many ways it went beyond the Civil Rights Acts through its key clauses.
7: These clauses said that there would be state and federal citizenship for all peoples, no matter of their race whether they were born or naturalized in the United States was made clear. Also, no state was allowed take the rights away from the citizens. “No person was allowed to be deprived of life, liberty,or property without "due process of law., and “no person could be denied "equal protection of the laws." (Tamar Jackson) | The Fifteenth Amendment | The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen right to vote based on race, color, or previous conditions such as slavery. It was ratified on February 3, 180 and contained two sections. The first section said that the right to vote should not by denied by the United States or any state because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The second section said that Congress has the power to enforce this amendment by appropriate legislation. The Fifteenth Amendment was the third Reconstruction Amendment, and the final House and Senate versions widely protected the right of citizens to vote and have a position in office. On February 26, 1869 the final amendment was proposed with a final vote of 39-13. Fourteen did not vote and equal rights advocates didn't vote because it didn't clearly enough stop states from being able to restrict black suffrage. In the house, the vote came to 144-44 with 35 not voting. No Democrats supported the bill and three Republicans voted against it. (Olivia Busillo)
8: Civil Rights Act of 1866 | In 1866, a Civil Rights Act was put into motion in effort to override the black does. The act granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States except Native Americans, allowed African Americans to own property, and stated that they were to be treated equally in court. It gave the federal government the power to sure people who violated those rights. President Johnson vetoed the bill and made way for the radical Republicans. Fearing that the act might be overturned in court, Republicans introduced the 14th Amendment. Unfortunately, groups like the Ku Klux Klan undermined the act and African American rights were not secured immediately.
9: In 1866, it was illegal to discriminate in jobs and housing based on race, but there were no federal punishments, so the parties involved could do what they wanted. Those who were discriminated against had barely any opportunities for legal help, so they had no protection. In 1968, the case of Jones versus Alfred H. Mayer Co. came to the conclusion that the Civil Rights Act of 1866 didn't allow private and state-backed discrimination and that the 13th Amendment allowed Congress to prohibit private acts of discrimination. The act has since been interpreted by the Supreme Court to protect all ethnic groups. (Olivia Busillo)
10: Civil Rights Act of 1875 | The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was a federal law in the United States made by Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Benjamin Butler in 1870. This act was approved by Congress in 1875 and signed by President Grant in March. It was guaranteed by this act that everyone regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations". If a person was found guilty of any of these, they would face a penalty from $500- $1,000 and/ or 30 days to a year in prison. But, this law barely was enforced, especially after the presidential election of 1876, and the withdrawal of the federal troops from the South. It wasn't until 1883 that the Supreme Court labeled this act as unconstitutional because even though the Fourteenth Amendment doesn't allow discrimination by the state, it does exemplify the right that the state should have the power to not allow discrimination by private individuals. At this time period this Act was unsuccessful. However, it became successful in 1964 due to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Fair Housing Act. (Tamar Jackson)
11: Several new political groups were formed during this time due to different stances. | Carpetbaggers | This was a term used by the Southerners to describe the Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction. Carpetbaggers came about because the “newcomers” usually carried carpet bags. It was used to mock the newcomers as being opportunist and being exploitation. Along with the Republicans, the carpetbaggers were said to politically mold and control previous Confederate states for periods at a time. They were said to do this for their own financial ad power urge. Carpetbaggers ere viewed as inferior Northerners with unpredictable motives. They were people that took part in politics, bought plantations at unbelievable prices and took advantage of the Southerners. (Tamar Jackson)
12: Scalawags | Scalawags were white Southerners who worked with the Republicans and supported Reconstruction. It was a diverse group that consisted of former whigs who joined the Democratic party before the war, small farm owners who didn't want wealthy planters to regain power, and business people who favored Republican plans for developing the South's economy. Scalawags gained bower by taking advantage of Reconstruction laws during 1867 that deprived Southern whites that couldn't or didn't take an oath proving that they didn't serve in the Confederate army or hold a position in office under regime before this time. They controlled every ex-Confederate state besides Virginia for 11 years. Redeemers and Democrats believed Scalawags were corrupt and didn't care because they profited personally. Social pressure forced most scalawags to turn over to the conservative/Democratic Redeemer alliance and away from the Scalawag/Carpetbagger alliance. Scalawags brought Republican ideas to Southern politics. (Olivia Busillo)
13: "Redemption" (Redeemers) | Redemption was a word used by white Southerners to describe the political alliance that was happening in the South during Reconstruction. Redeemers were the Southern wing of Bourbon Democrats who wanted to get rid of the alliance between freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags. During Reconstruction the South was occupied by federal forces and their governments dominated by the Republicans who wanted political rights to be given to freed slaves so they could become citizens. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments enclosed political rights in the Constitution. Blacks came back to the South to work for Reconstruction, but white Southerners continued to stop blacks from having anything to do with politics. Most of the violence against freedmen and Republicans was done by other whites, such as the Ku Klux Klan. Southern Democrats exhibited power through the White League and the Red Shirts that turned out Republicans holders of office and tortured and terrorized freedmen and allies to suppress voting. By 1876, the only states that weren't taken over by white Democrats were Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida. (Olivia Busillo)
14: These are major court cases that challenged many amendments and laws that were passed during Reconstruction. | The Colfax Massacre ( reason for US v Kruikshank) | There was uprising conflicts between the Republican and Democrats in Louisiana were most frequent in 1872. The state elections of that year created two governors that both claimed to be legitimate. White residents refused to cooperate due to the federal government siding with the Republican governor by sending federal troops to Louisiana. In 1873, violence had occurred in Colfax, Louisiana. The white league, similar to the KKK didn't get along with the mostly black militia in Louisiana. Armed with rifles and a small cannon in order to overpower the freedmen. These freedmen were state militia and newly freed enslaved persons who were attacked by the White league even after surrendering. Only three members of the White League died, while up to 100 black men were killed. This massacre showed President Ulysses S. Grant how hard it would be to guarantee the rights and the safety of blacks in the South. (Tamar Jackson)
15: US v Kruikshank | On April 13, 1873, an attack on Republican freedmen took place in Colfax, Louisiana by an armed white militia. The Republican freedmen were at the courthouse to protect it from the awaiting Democratic takeover. In November of 1872, two parties declared victory at state and local levels, and Republicans had chosen their own spots for local offices of sheriff and justice of the peace. The court came to the conclusion that the First Amendment for right to assembly wasn't meant to limit the powers of the State government to please citizens and that the Second Amendment was only used to restrict the powers of the national government. However, Justice Clifford said that a section of the 14th Amendment gave the federal government the power to legislate the actions of those who deny or belittle the constitutional rights of others but it wasn't strong enough for the defendants to make a case out of it. Blacks in the South were not protected by the state governments, and when Democrats regained power, they made voting and elections complicated, making it extremely hard for blacks to even vote. Former Confederate states passed constitutions or amendments that deprived black voters and poor whites, as well as a black person's ability to serve on juries or hold political office. (Olivia Busillo)
16: The Slaughterhouse Cases | The Slaughterhouse Cases were the first cases regarding the Fourteenth Amendment. The case read the 14th Amendment as protection to the privileges compared by virtue of United States citizenship to everybody living there, but not the privileges relating to the citizenship of a state. City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughter-House Company Louisiana had part control of the slaughtering business and gave it to a company. Others said that this was involuntary servitude, denied equal protection of laws, had no due process, and reduced privileges. The lower courts were in favor of Crescent City in all of the six cases. The cases were then appealed to the Supreme Court where the butchers based their claims on the Fourteenth Amendment. Their attorney Campbell argued that 14th Amendment allowed butchers of any race to support their way of life through labor because section 1 of the amendment isn't racially limited. Court ruled that it didn't confine police powers of the state and that the fourteenth amendment only affected rights of United States citizenship and not state citizenship. The butchers Fourteenth Amendment rights were not violated and court held that the amendment was mostly meant to protect former slaves so it couldn't be applied here. (Olivia Busillo)
17: John Campbell who served as the butchers attorney.
18: Several people made an impact during the Reconstruction era in politics and the fight for civil rights, good and bad. | Ulysses S. Grant | Ulysses S. Grant led the Radical Republicans in getting rid of all remembrance of Confederate nationalism and slavery. He enforced reconstruction by enforcing civil rights laws and the Ku Klux Klan who he destroyed in 1871. The 15th Amendment was passed and gave constitutional protection to African American voting rights. He used the army to create a republican party in the south that consisted of black voters, carpetbaggers and scalawags. His effort of putting refugees under protection working in abandoned Confederate fields making cotton was an earlier approach that would eventually form the Freedman's Bureau. Grant's Reconstruction policy was much like Johnson's. He also believed that Congress should allow congressional representatives from the South to be seated. Congress used military power to divide the southern states into give military districts so that African Americans constitutional and congressional rights were protected. Grant was in charge of selecting generals to lead each district, but was against the use of the military in this situation. During Grant's power, many blacks held position in political office etc. and he protected their rights by overturning the black codes in 1867. (Olivia Busillo)
20: The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson | Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, during Reconstruction and became the first impeachment in history of a president that ran for a second time. His impeachment was a part of a lengthy political battle, between the Johnson and the "Radical Republican" in Congress. The discrepancy was on behalf of the Reconstruction policies after the American Civil War. Andrew Johnson was impeached on February 24, 1868 in the United States House of Representatives on eleven articles of impeachment detailing his "high crimes and misdemeanors", in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution. The house mainly accused Johnson with violation of the Tenure of Office Act, which was passed by Congress the previous year. Specifically, he removed Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War in which the Tenure of Office Act was designed to protect him from being removed, from office and replaced him with Ulysses S. Grant. (Tamar Jackson)
22: This political cartoon references the patching up of the Union after the Civil War. Andrew Johnson was Abraham Lincoln's Vice President. Johnson is sewing up a map of the United States while Lincoln is holding it up with a split rail. The Reconstruction Era was a time to reconstruct and piece the Union back together, as Johnson and Lincoln are doing here.
23: Hiram Revels | Hiram Revels was the first African American that was able to serve in the United States Senate. Also as being the first African American in the United States Congress he came before any other African American in the House. During reconstruction he represented Mississippi, as reported by John Lynch, "so far as known he [Revels] had never voted, had never attended a political meeting, and of course, had never made a political speech. But he was a colored man, and presumed to be a Republican, and believed to be a man of ability and considerably above the average in point of intelligence." In January of 1870, Hiram Revels displayed an opening prayer in the Senate legislature. In the words of Lynch, "That prayer—one of the most impressive and eloquent prayers that had ever been delivered in the [Mississippi] Senate Chamber—made Revels a United States Senator. He made a profound impression upon all who heard him. It impressed those who heard it that Revels was not only a man of great natural ability but that he was also a man of superior attainments." In conclusion, given the right by the Amendments Hiram was the first African American to join Congress and represent a state. (Tamar Jackson)
24: Charles Sumner | Charles Sumner was a radical Republicans who fought to gain equal civil and voting rights for freedmen. He believed that this was a basic principle of the Republican Party and that it was necessary to keep ex-Confederates from getting positions in political office and keep the North's victory intact. His theory of Reconstruction was that nothing was off limits to Congress when it came to deciding how to treat the Confederacy. He believed that when they seceded they committed “state suicide” and should be treated like they had never been a part of the Union from the start. He believed Lincoln and Johnson's plans for Reconstruction were too easy on the South and advanced beyond the usual limits upon the powers of Congress. (Olivia Busillo)
25: The South made efforts and had organizations that yearned to prevent newly freed slaves from gaining rights. | The Black Codes | Black codes were a set of laws that were passed by the southern governments during President Andrew Johnson's term. These codes/ laws placed harsh restrictions on the freedmen including not allowing them to have their right to vote stated by the Amendments.The laws would also forbid freedmen to serve jury duty, take away their right to testify against white men, and have weapons in public places and working certain careers. Once the American Civil war occurred Radical Republicans vouched for the Civil Rights Bill to be passed.It was a legislation to protect the freedmen from those harsh codes. In its essence the Black codes were a fail since the Civil rights Bill was passed. (Tamar Jackson)
26: The Ku Klux Klan | The Ku Klux Klan targeted freedmen and their allies in hopes to restore white supremacy. They did this through the use of threats and violence. The Klan spread throughout the South during Reconstruction. The federal government passed Force Acts that were used to prosecute crimes committed by the Klan and suppress Klan activity. Other organizations such as the White League and the Red Shirts arose who shared the same mentality with the Klan. The Klan was founded by six Confederate veterans from Tennessee on December 24, 1865. The Klan was created to serve the Democrats, planters, and anyone else for white supremacy. Its main focuses were to destroy the Republican infrastructure, undermine Reconstruction in general, gain back control over the black labor force, and bring back the lowering status of blacks in the South. Ku Klux Klan violence was the main thing that what used to pass civil rights protection for blacks. (Olivia Busillo)
28: After slaves were freed, there were things provided for them and things they could do to survive on their own. | The Freedman's Bureau | Freedman's Bureau was created by the Freedman's Bureau Bill. It was enforced by Abraham Lincoln with the hope of lasting for one year after the Civil was over and done with. It was passed in 1865 by Congress to help freedmen get legal housing, food, oversight, education, health care, and employment along the lines of dealing with private landowners. During the reconstruction period Freedman's Bureau, really helped out the ex- slaves in the South. The Bureau became part of the United States Department of War. Union Army General Oliver Howard was the leader of the Bureau during the years of 1865-1871. But under the jurisdiction of President Ulysses Grant the Bureau was broken apart. For the years that it served the Freedman's bureau made a huge difference in the lives of the freedmen. In a way it was a success in its purpose to assist the freed ex- slaves in the south.
30: The compromise that ended it all. | The Compromise of 1877 | The Compromise of 1877 was a deal that settled the fight over the 1876 presidential election. It was known to have been a corrupt bargain and the end to Congressional Radical Reconstruction. Rutherford B. Hayes became president over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden because Hayes was to remove federal troops whose support was needed to keep Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. Grant removed troops from Florida and when Hayes became president he removed the troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, and with them, Republicans left or became Democrats and redeemers took control. The main focus of the compromise was that Southern Democrats would recognize Hayes as President solely because Republicans would have to meet certain orders. Federal troops from former Confederate states would be removed, one Southern Democrat would be in Hayes’s cabinet, another railroad would be built using the Texas and Pacific in the South, and legislation would aid in industrializing the South. All of these things being met, Democrats would accept that Hayes is president and acknowledge and respect black rights. (Olivia Busillo)
31: Sharecropping and Tenant Farming | Sharecropping was used greatly during the Reconstruction era after the South had been extremely saddened by the war. Planters had a lot of land but had no money to keep it going. Former slaves had the labor but no land or money. . It became widespread after the economic disturbance due to the emancipation of slaves and deprival or poor whites in agricultural South during Reconstruction. Sharecropping didn't provide much for the blacks because there was little equipment and the owner didn't give them a lot of money. Land was given to the occupant and they were to grow crops that would be shared between themselves and the owner. They could farm and manage the land on their own and paid rent with the crops they grew. Plantation owners were able to take advantage of blacks this way by giving them contracts that they couldn't read. If you chose tenant farming, you had to pay rent but you could live with your family. Tools are supplied and landowners help with the cultivation of the crops. You sign a contract for a certain number of years. Tenants usually were both sharecroppers and tenant farmers. Whether you were a sharecropper or a tenant farmer you grew cash crops like cotton, had to abide by a landowner, and sign a contract. Both systems were popular with poor whites and newly freed slaves. (Olivia Busillo)
32: The panic before the Reconstruction era came to an end. | The Panic of 1873 | The Panic of 1873 caused extreme economic depression in Europe and the United States for 6 years. It was due to the drop in demand for silver across the world. Due to poor economic conditions, voters turned against the Republican Party. In 1874 Democrats got control of the House and public opinion made it hard for a policy to be developed for Southern states. At this time, the North started to shy away from Reconstruction. Plans for building railroads in the South fell apart and left states in debt. The Republicans began to lose power as more and more Southern states got taken over by Democrats. (Olivia Busillo)
34: The Port Royal Experiment | This experiment occurred during the American Civil War where e- slaves worked on land vacant by plantation owners successfully. In 1861 released the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbor in Port Royal. The white residents that left behind about 10,000 black slaves. The former slaves were assisted by Northern charity groups. This was an example of what Reconstruction could have turned out to be. The African Americans were able to demonstrate how to work diligently and live independently away from white control. The distributed daily tasks for one another for cotton and other crops and cultivation. They were able to merchandise with locals with their crops. In 1863, General Mitchel allowed African Americans to found the town of Mitchelville on Hilton Head Island. But in 1865 President Andrew Johnson ended the experiment, returning the land to its previous white owners. (Tamar Jackson)
35: "A truce-not a compromise."
36: The advice we give to you. | Reconstruction in America was a time to make progress, and while in some ways it did, there were many ways that it didn't. Knowing everything you now know, after the civil war in Terpakistan ends, there will be much work that needs to be done. Even though the war has been won, that doesn't the fight over. Almost all of the steps taken in American Reconstruction were proper steps to make, but they weren't always carried out to the best ability, so they crumbled due to lack of thoroughness/support or an outside force tearing it into pieces. Plans to reform should be made, and there should be several of them. You should have a plan to reform all aspects that have been affected by this war like military and politics. Since the president is confident that the East will win, he should make an effort to allow the people who broke away from the union to be pardoned like America's president, Andrew Johnson did at the time. One of the main points of this time should be to bring the union back together. Amendments and acts should be passed to allow the newly freed slaves civil rights. This won't only be a battle for civil rights. It will also be a great battle for politics. There will be clash of beliefs between people in the East and the West, and each party will try their best to impose their thoughts on others. We understand that it will be a difficult task because not everyone will want the same things, but if you can find a medium and compromise between parties earlier on then when they did in America, reconstruction may come to a safer and quicker end. Unfortunately even when amendments and such were passed in America, people still tormented and terrorized newly freed slaves.
37: Groups like the Ku Klux Klan will most likely form in Terpakistan, and when things like this are taken to court, loopholes in amendments will be found and justice will most likely not be served to the blacks because courts will try to avoid any further conflict to enrage people who are searching to regain white supremacy. If you want to rid of slavery and discrimination against blacks, as much as you may believe it, laws will not do it. It is difficult to pinpoint what will, but other plans will have to be made. Having strong leaders who fight for civil rights and take action to destroy people who are against it are extremely helpful. As president of the East, you should be the main person who fights against that. If you have a leader like Andrew Johnson who doesn't necessarily always approve of amendments etc. more problems can come about, so it is best to get rid of them and have a leader who will fight for everything that Reconstruction is for, civil rights and the coming back together of the union. You should also come up with plans for newly freed slaves to survive. Things like the Port Royal Experiment and the Freedman's Bureau are a good start. Even things like sharecropping and tenant farming are good, but blacks are still in a way deprived. They still have to abide by landowners. All of this can cause economic problems and with that may come a shift in power. In the end, you have two sides that yearn for two completely different things, so compromise will have to be made. American Reconstruction was ended with a compromise, but it wasn't soon after that slave holders and confederate leaders regained power. If this happens in Terpakistan, reconstruction will not be achieved. Learn from both the mistakes and the good efforts America made to ensure that Terpakistan’s reconstruction will be successful.