FC: The American Revolution
1: The American Revolution
3: The American Revolution was a war between American colonists and their mother country, Great Britain. It was a struggle for independence. This book summarizes the events that lead up to the war and the results of that war.
4: "Taxation without Representation" The British felt the colonists should pay taxes for the services they received and would not otherwise have if Great Britain did not provide them. The colonists were not opposed to paying taxes, but felt they were being taxed unfairly because they had no representatives present in Parliament when the decisions on taxing were made. They felt they were being overly taxed to pay for the huge debts accrued from the French and Indian War.
5: Stamp Act, 1765 The Stamp Act was the first direct British taxation on the colonies. All newspapers, pamphlets, licenses, and official documents were required to be stamped, which cost money. The colonists felt they should not have to pay taxes on things they had free for years. They began to grow resistant. The colonists boycotted items requiring stamps. The Stamp Act was repealed in 1766.
6: Townshend Act, 1767 Charles Townshend, British Prime Minister, imposed a law taxing many common items, such as glass, lead, paints, paper and tea. Again, the colonists were angered. And again, the colonists chose to boycott those items that had been taxed without their representation in Parliament.
7: The colonists had successfully forced the hand of Great Britain, and the tax was repealed...on everything except tea.
8: The Tea Act, 1773 The Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea to the colonists without the usual tax. It was an effort to both save the East India Company from ruin and curtail the colonists' smuggling practices. The colonists, however, viewed it as one more example of taxation without representation.
9: The Boston Tea Party, 1773 In response to the Tea Act, the Boston Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Indians and dumped 324 cases of British tea into the Boston Harbor.
10: The Intolerable Acts, 1774 As a direct response to (and punishment for) the Boston Tea Party, Parliament issued the Coercive Acts. Because of the severity of these laws, the colonists referred to them as the Intolerable Acts. The laws closed the port in Boston, removed the Massachusetts government, allowed trials of British officials to be moved to Britain, and employed the quartering of British soldiers.
11: These laws also triggered outrage and resistance in the colonies and led to the decision for war.
12: Patriots vs Loyalists
13: The Patriots The Patriots were the colonists who had chosen to rebel against any further British control. They were committed to independence, knowing they could be tried for treason if unsuccessful. | The Loyalists The Loyalists were the colonists who were still loyal to the British crown. They felt that the struggle for independence was either not worth the effort, or entirely treasonous. They would fight with the British, if at all.
14: The colonists held a meeting, the First Continental Congress, to address the growing problems and plan a response.
15: It didn't take long for the fighting to begin. Paul Revere made his famous ride to alert the colonists of Lexington and Concord of the arrival of the British. The first shots were fired on Lexington Green, April 19, 1775.
16: The colonists met again, the Second Continental Congress. They created the Continental Army and put George Washington in charge.
17: The Declaration of Independence | Thomas Jefferson and four other men drafted the Declaration of Independence, which declared the 13 American Colonies independent of Great Britain. It was approved July 4, 1776.
18: The Continental Army was out-manned, out-trained, and out-gunned, but they had home field advantage, motivation, and the leadership of Gen. Washington
19: The Continental Army won a few battles, but were falling fast and hard. They needed a victory in the worst way. The Battle of Saratoga was that victory. It should have been an easy British win, allowing them to seize all of New York. Instead, the Continental Army won, and the world took notice. France decided to give us much needed public support.
20: The Continental Army began defeating the British in southern colonies. With the aid of the French, America defeated the British. Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Gen. Washington after the Battle of Yorktown, October 19, 1781.
21: Although some minor fighting continued, the American Revolution was essentially over. The British found the struggle too costly to continue. The American Revolution was officially ended September 3, 1783, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. It was signed by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain recognized the independent nation of the United States of America.