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The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Absolute or Enlightened Monarchy (Copy)

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S: The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Absolute or Enlightened Monarchy

BC: Created by: Leanna, Jackie, and Sean Period 1-Group 1

FC: The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Absolute or Enlightened Monarchy

1: What is absolutism and enlightened monarchy? | Absolutism A solution to the crises in Europe during the seventeenth century was what historians called absolutism. It is a form of government in which a single individual, often called a king or queen, exercises complete control over all aspects of government. For those that opposed their behavior and seizure of power they replied that they had been granted the divine right of kings. | Enlightened monarchs were absolute rulers, but they were interested in education, in improving their country, and often, in some degree of betterment for their people. They were influenced by Western European enlightenment ideals and always tried to increase rights for the lower class. They also tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. | <---- Enlightened Monarchy

2: How Are These Leaders Ranked? | ........................................Mightiest of all ........Becoming one of the Greater ones ..................Good, but can use improving ......Are you sure this person is a leader? .........So did your country fall apart yet? | .......... ........................ .................................. .............................................

3: Who Were Some of These Rulers? | Louis XIV of France Fredrick William II of Prussia Maria Theresa of Austria Peter I of Russia Phillip II of Spain Catherine II of Russia

4: Strategies for Ruling Successfully | 1. Govern with a high sense of duty, and work hard to ensure justice. 2. Trust no one and watch over everything. 3. Spend some time to study reports and make both minor and major decisions. 4. Keep th nobles close to reduces their powers and so they become dependent. 5. Expand and protect the country's economy. 6. Support new art styles. 7. Modernize and improve the country's army. 8. Expand countries borders. 9. Become well/highly educated.

5: Strategies that will Fail | 1. Tax the people to death 2. Anger the people in any way that would make them want to overthrow their ruler 3. Fighting pointless wars only causing debt and casualties 4. Dying and leaving the country and people in mass economic depression 5. Not really doing anything important for the country or people while in rule

6: " | He used his residence at Versailles to compel nobles to come to that small town, in which large palace was built. The nobles had to come to Versailles to be near the king.. He had an arrangement where he handed out all offices. Louis expected them to be there all the time. If a French noble wanted to secure a place in a government office for a cousin, the king would reply, "Ah! He is a man I do not know." Meaning, the person himself should get to Versailles and start waiting on the king. | At only four years old Louis XIV became the king of France. Because he was too young to rule such a big country openly, his mother, Anne of Austria, served as a regent. However, his mother often allowed Louis' chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, to make the decisions on behalf of the young king. When Mazarin died in 1661, Louis was ready to rule France at 22. He became known as the Sun King, for he was the light. "I am the state." Louis believed that as king he had a divine right to rule with absolute power because kings were representatives of God's power on earth.

7: Louis XIV of France | Through Louis' position on religion, it brought many protests to France. He offended the Catholic Church by insulting the officials, including the high and mighty pope. Louis dominated the church in France and after seeing the creation of four Gallican Articles, which limited the power of any pope over the French Church, he persecuted the French Protestants, also known as the Huguenots. Although Louis was cherished, there are times where he could be cruel and oppressive. But this was a strategy that permit him to keeping his royal power. | Louis XIV embodied Absolutism more than any other French monarch. Louis ruled France from 1643-1715. By the end of his reign in the 18th century, he had completely centralized government, even divesting the nobility of power. He made sure the people were close to him so he can keep an eye on them, securing his authority over them, and making him more powerful than anyone else. When the Sun King died on Sept. 1, 1715, his great-grandson became Louis XV.

8: Maria Theresa Of Austria | Maria Theresa of Austria was the Arch Dutchess of Austria and the Queen of HUngary and Bohemia. Maria was the only female head of the Habsburg Dynasty. She was also the most successful of the Habsburg rulers. She was also the mother of sixteen children. Maria Theresa began her rule in 1740 and her rule ended when she died in 1780. After the death of Charles VI, challenges to the Habsburg lands broke out and lead to War of the Austrian Succession. Maria took many different steps to stabolize her kingdom. | The war lasted eight years and during the war Maria doubled her fathers troops to strengthen the army and reorganized the tax income to support the costs of the army and the government. The war ended with the loss of Silesia though. Then in 1763, Maria signed the treaty of Hubertusberg, which ended hostilities and recognized Persias possession of Silesia.

9: After the death of her husband, Maria slowed down. Her reforms came slower and slower and she always dressed in black for morning for her husband. Maria was said to be kind, courageous, and respectable. She respected others rights and others respected her rights too. In late reign, she became involved with serf reform. In 1771, she issued the Robot Patent. The Robot Patent was designed to regulate peasants labor and income payments in the Habsburg lands. | Maria was successful because of her many reforms that reached out, not only to the wealthy, but to the peasants, so everyone. She was well liked and respected by the people. She is said to be the savior of the Habsburg dynasty, and provided a strong foundation for the continuation of the Dynasty into the modern era. Sometimes Maria is even considered the greatest ruler of the Habsburg Dynasty.

10: Frederick William II | Frederick William II of Prussia often considered a symbol of Germany's independence. He is also known as Frederick the Great. Frederick the great ruled from 1739-1786 when he died of a disease. For 46 years, he governed Prussia, he gave importance to the army and reformed the administration and made his country a major power. Frederick was a very tolerant ruler despite his abused childhood. He was abused by his father until he sent a letter to his grandfather contemplating suicide. After that, his father was sent to jail. | During his reign, he seized Silesia, and defeated the Austrians. In the second Silesian war, he gained further territories. Around that time, he started doing off military work. Frederick the Great skillfully employed their limited resources to make his kingdom the most powerful German state during the seven years war. Frederick had a broad tolerance for various different religions. Frederick had an alliance in England and Netherlands.

11: Frederick the Great was the one who focused on militarism for the first time in German history. He was the one who started the military tradition that then died in 1945. Without knowing, he inspired many German leaders, although they were good and bad. | Frederick was a successful ruler because he did what was right for his country at the time, meaning military powers. He is a huge symbol of independence to Germany. However, when he died, he had gone bankrupt and lost most of his military power. The Nazi's then tarnished his name, and used him as their own "inspiration." Hitler even had a portrait of him in his living room. So since then, the king's image is not very positive despite all the good that he did for his country at the time of his rule. Frederick worked to make his kingdom a powerful one and he really achieved that.

12: Peter I of Russia | Peter I, also known as Peter the Great, but in addition he was titled Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russia. Peter's sheer physical presence seemed to indicate the way his rule would go. He was nearly 7 feet tall and very broad. He was also massively powerful, "loud-mouthed, violent, ruthless and impetuous." Peter was always wanted to learn and was always active. He learned how to be a carpenter, talk to mathematicians and learned how to train soldiers to their full potential- including on how to torture people. While Sophia had been regent, he lived in Germany and spent some time living with soldiers learning about defense and ballistics. When he returned to Russia, he decided to form a small army out of his servants and required them to live like ammunition firing war games.

13: Peter the Great was the Russian czar who transformed Russia from an isolated agricultural society into an Empire on an equivalence with European powers. He was the czar who modernized 18th century Russia. Peter toured Europe (sometimes in disguise to avoid being recognized) and educated himself in western culture and science, then returned to Russia and introduced military, civil and social reforms to make Russia more like Europe, particularly Germany. He spent much of his time fighting wars, first against the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, then against the Swedes in the Great Northern War. He succeeded in conquering land on the Baltic Sea, where he found St. Petersburg, a gateway to Europe. St. Petersburg became the new capital of Russia. Peter was often in the battlefield, occasionally returning home to address domestic issues. In 1725 he dove in the water to help rescue some drowning sailors; he ended up with a bad cold and died a short time later.

14: Catherine The Great | Catherine II of Russia, aka, "Catherine the Great," ruled from 1729-1796. She is often remembered for her flamboyant behavior and many lovers. Catherine was originally born a Princess of Germany but then converted to Orthodoxy and was married to heir of the Russian throne. Catherine disliked her husband and often contemplated his removal from the throne. After her husbands death, which she may have been apart of, she took title of Queen of Russia. | During her reign, Catherine expanded Russia's borders from the Black Sea and into Europe. She promoted Westernization and Modernization. She increased the control of gentry over serfs, which only led to more revolts from the serfs. She made Russia better by increasing education in Russia and medical commission which helped improve medical conditions. Through two Russo-Turkish wars, she helped expand Russia.

15: Catherine is often named as one of the most important rulers of the Russian Empire, especially with Westernization during the 19th, 20th century. She set the foundations for it. | Catherine the Great ruled through corruption, scandal, political reforms, and land expansion. Catherine challenged social norms for women in that era in political power situations. Catherine the Great was a successful ruler because of all the things she did for the Russian Empire. Even though some of her actions caused revolts and may be looked down upon, she did a sufficient amount of good for Russia while she was ruling. She overall, had good control and tactics she used to make her successful throughout her reign.

16: Phillip II of Spain is also known as the King of Seventeen Provinces. He ruled from 1555-1558. He was a vain, vicious, ambitious, and ruthless ruler. ONce Phillip began his rule, he reactivated the Spanish Inquisition in an attempt to deal with the growth of Protestantism in Europe. Phillip wasn't really a very popular guy, so much so that in 1568, Muslims living in Granda rebelled against his rule. This rebellion was eventually put down in 1570, but three years later, a more serious rebellion took place in the Netherlands. | Phillip II of Spain became King of Portugal in 1580. After that, he then began prosecuting Protestants in the Netherlands. After the execution of Mary Stuart, Phillip decided to conquer England and end Elizabeth and her Protestant government. So 131 of his ships in the Spanish Armada left for England. Of the 25,000 men on the ships, less than 10,000 arrived home safely. So as you can see, his attempts were not successful. Then again in 1591, there was yet another revolt against his rule. Phillips military campaigns created financial problems and by 1596, his country went bankrupt.

17: Phillip II of Spain | Phillip died in 1598, leaving a huge toll on his country. He left his people and empire divided and economically depressed. Phillip's son then took over his rule after his death. | Phillip II of Spain was in no way a successful ruler. The people he ruled over didn't like him, which is made obvious by their many attempts to overthrow and revolt against him. He never really did anything that significant for his country. He truly only ruined their future chances of survival of the empire for them. In the end, he didn't set a good foundation, he left his people bankrupt and in economic depression.

18: G L O S S A R Y | Absolute Monarchy- the ruler has total power over his or her people and land, including the aristocracy Alliance- an agreement made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests Boyars- a member of the highest rank of the feudal Czar- a title used to designate certain Eastern-European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers Divine Right- that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God Enlightened Monarchy- is a form of absolute monarchy in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment Huguenots- members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France Nobles- belonging to, a hereditary class that has special social or political status in a country or state; of or pertaining to the aristocracy Palace of Versailles- the centre of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris Reform- to put or change into an improved form or conditio

19: Works Consulted | "Louis XIV - the Sun King: Biography." Louis XIV - the Sun King: Louis XIV - the Sun King. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2011. 1689, the summer of. "Peter I of Russia." Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2011. "File:Louis-xiv-lebrunl.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2011. "Public Schools Historical Atlas by C. Colbeck - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online." University of Texas Libraries. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2011. "Catherine the Great." Minnesota State University, Mankato. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. "Catherine the Great." Catherine the Great Photo. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. "Louis XIV and Frederick the Great." Freiburg-Madison-Gesellschaft. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. "Map Russia." World in Images. Travel Guide and Maps . N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. "Map of Austria." GMT: Greenwich Mean Time - World Time / Time in every Time Zone. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. Vinsko, Brian. "Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria." King's College - Wilkes-Barre, PA - 1-888-KINGS-PA. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. " Google Image Result for http://www.alicante-spain.com/images/map-of-spain.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. " Google Image Result for http://www.germaniainternational.com/images/frederickopenerpg1.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. " Google Image Result for http://www.nndb.com/people/229/000092950/philip-ii-3-sized.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. "Frederick the Great." World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. "Philip II of Spain : Biography." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011.

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