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FC: The Life and Times of Early Egypt | Erin O.
1: Table of Contents Pages 2-3........Egyptian Classes Pages 4-5........The Pyramids Pages 6-7........Contributions of the Egyptians Pages 8-9........The Mummy Process Pages 10-11........Pharaohs Pages 12-13........Bibliography | 1
2: Egyptian life consisted of five classes of people. The top of the "pyramid" (seen on right) is the pharaoh. The pharaoh is the "king" or the "leader." The pharaohs ruled everyday life. They were like the president of early Egypt. The second level of the pyramid is the upper class. The upper class consists of the royal family, rich landowners, government officials, priests, army officers, and doctors. The third level, the middle class, contains merchants, manufacturers, and artisans. The next class is the lower class- the unskilled laborers and farmers. The fifth and final class of the pyramid is the slaves and servants. These were the people who earned there money by working for people, or they were unpaid and owned by people. | Classes of Egyptians | 2
4: The Pyramids | A pyramid is a large structure made of thousands of blocks. When looking at a pyramid, it is triangular; each level smaller than the one below it. Each pyramid block weighs approximately two tons each. You can imagine how colossal these structures are. The purpose of the pyramid was for the Egyptians to create a burial place for the honored pharaoh that passed away. In the pyramid surrounding the pharaoh were the pharaoh's much love objects, favorite foods, and clothing. The Egyptians believed that these things would be used by the pharaoh in the afterlife. Even though the people of Egypt wanted to create a nice | 4
5: place or the pharaohs to rest, it wasn't easy to do so. On average, it took 20-30 years for 10,000 people to build it, so they started to build the pyramid long before the death of the pharaoh. | 5
6: Contributions of the Egyptians | The ancient Egyptians made many contributions to modern day society. For example-the Egyptians invented the first body cast, and not just that, but they also had the first hospitals. Even though we don't use this anymore, who do you think invented the chariot? Not the Greeks. Not even the Romans, like many movies today lead us to believe. It was the Egyptians. Also, they invented something very important that we use every day. Paper and ink. They were the very first people to us plants to make paper to write on. Not just that, but they also invented the ink, so they could write on it. The paper that they made (called papyrus) was also used to make baskets, rafts, and boats. In the field of mathematics, they invented a number system based on tens. They also created | 6
7: calendars, geometry to survey land, fractions, and whole numbers. As far as medicine goes, they were the first people to specialize in this subject. They even had doctors that specialized in curing animals, eyes, and ones who specialized in surgery. They also used bandages and splints. Some doctors specialized in sewing up cuts and fixing broken bones. Along with their many inventions, they also had many remedies for things such as hair loss and indigestion. For hair loss, they used a mixture of dates, dog toes, and donkey hooves. For indigestion, they used castor oil. | 7
8: The Mummy Process | Turning the dead body into a mummy was a very important process in ancient Egypt. First, the brain was taken out of the body. After th brain was taken out, the lungs, stomach, liver, and intestines were taken out, embalmed, and put into a jar. To fill the empty spaces in the body where the organs had been removed, they places sweet smelling spices. | 8
9: Over the hole where the organs were, they placed an embossed, golden panel. On it were symbols of good fortune in the afterlife. Then they performed a process in which the body was drained of liquids for forty days. When forty days were over, the mummy was coated with special oils so that no liquid would get into the body. After that, the body was covered with sacred necklaces and jewelry. The body was then covered in linen strips. Finally, the covered mummy was place in three coffins and then the sarcophagus, which were already in the tomb. The whole process took approximately seventy days. | 9
10: Pharaohs | Pharaohs were considered to be high gods as well as mortals. Typically, being a pharaoh was hereditary, but when an unfortunate event such as a murder or disappearance of a pharaoh occurred, someone else was chosen to lead Egypt. Sometimes, a pharaoh would intermarry with a member of his own family to keep the kingship within the family if there were no children to carry on the position. Perhaps the most well known of the Egyptian pharaohs was Tutankhamen, often referred to as "King Tut." King Tut became a pharaoh of Egypt at only age nine. Still, the world ponders the mysterious death of the young pharaoh at the age of eighteen. Many believe his death has to do with a so called "curse" that is still thought to linger in his tomb. | 10
12: Bibliography | Contributions. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010.
13: History of Ancient Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2010.