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TIME MAGAZINE

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TIME MAGAZINE - Page Text Content

BC: TIME MAGAZINE Editors: Michelle Proviano, Jake McClelland, Michelle Whitehead, Sam Saltzman, Sam Dominick, Chris Garbark

1: Politcal Cartoon | LITTLE ROCK, AR | 1957 | LITTLE ROCK NINE

2: The Early Years of Dwight Eisenhower By Michelle Whitehead Dwight Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890 in Denison, Texas. Originally from Hope, Kansas, his parents David and Ida moved to Denison so David could work on the Missouri, Kansas, & Texas railway. In 1892, Eisenhower and his family moved back to Dickinson Country, Kansas. Graduating in 1909 from Abilene High School, where he got his famous nickname “Ike”, Dwight Eisenhower went on to work as a refrigerator engineer in Belle Springs Creamery in Abilene. Two years later, Eisenhower entered the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York. This was the start to his long military career. In 1915, he graduated West Point and began working. Starting off as a

3: commissioned second lieutenant of infantry, Eisenhower eventually was promoted to captain in 1917 during his military service in Fort Sam Houston, Texas. When he was in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, Eisenhower met his wife, Mamie Geneva Doud. They were then married in 1916. Later, they had two

4: two sons together. On September 22, 1917, Eisenhower began working as a trainer in an ROTC camp in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. After only about 3 months, Eisenhower moved back to Kansas. This time, he served as an instructor at the Army Service Schools in Fort Leavenworth. Soon after in March of 1918, he went on to serve as commander of Camp Colt, Tank Corps in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. During his service in Camp Colt, Eisenhower was promoted to temporary rank of major and then to temporary rank of lieutenant colonel. From there, he served in Tank Corps in Fort Dix, New Jersey and then in Fort Benning, Georgia. From July to September of 1919, Eisenhower served as observer for the Tank Corps on the Army’s First Transcontinental Truck Convoy on the Lincoln Highway. Later in 1922, Eisenhower served as executive officer at Camp Gaillard in the Panama Canal Zone. There, he was promoted to permanent rank of major.

5: His service in Panama ended in September of 1924, and he moved on to serve in Ft. Meade, Maryland and then Ft. Logan, Denver, Colorado. Then in August of 1925, Eisenhower began attending Command and General Staff School in Fort Leavenworth. In June of 1926, he graduated first in his class. From there, he went on to Ft. Benning, Georgia to serve as Assistant Post Executive Officer. Meanwhile, he was also part of the American Battle Monuments Commission up until August of 1927. After his employment in the American Battle Monuments Commission, Eisenhower attended the Army War College in Fort McNair, Washington, D.C. Once again, after he finished the Army War College, he served on the American Battle Monuments Commission a second time. This time, he served in Washington, D.C., and Paris, France. From November 8, 1929 to February 20, 1933, Eisenhower was assistant executive to the assistant secretary of war. Then, he landed an even bigger job as

6: assistant to General Douglas MacArthur, the Chief of Staff of the War Department General Staff. He worked as assistant until September of 1935. Only one month later, he became the senior assistant to General Douglas MacArthur, the military adviser to the Philippine Commonwealth. While he was senior assistant, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. This job lasted until December of 1939. Overall, starting as just a refrigerator engineer from Kansas, Eisenhower went on to travel the world through a long military career. During his career, he went from one military camp to another, leading him to be General Douglas MacArthur’s assistant. Because of MacArthur’s importance to military plans, perhaps this inspired Eisenhower to become more involved in politics. Seeing a lot of the world because of the military, Eisenhower had an advantage and was able to be a better president.

7: 2nd Half of Eisenhower's Before Presidency By: Chris Garbark In 1940 Eisenhower would serve temporary duty at IX Corps Area Headquarters the Presidio, in San Francisco. He later moves to Fort Lewis where he is appointed Executive Officer of the 3rd division and Commander of the 1st battalion. Later on he would be appointed Chief of Staff at Fort Lewis. He serves as Chief of Staff in the 3rd Army in San A ntonio, Texas. Eisenhower would move on to become Deputy Assistant of Chief of Staff, War Plans Division, War department in Washington D.C. in 1941 in which he would be designated Assistant Chief of Staff the following year. He would then go on to the Operations Division with the same rank. Eisenhower would be sent to conduct a mission in London, England to raise cooperation among World War II allies in 1942. In 1942 he is designated as

8: Commanding General of the U.S. Army forces in European Theater which is in London, England. Also in 1942 he would become the Commander in Chief of Allied Forces stationed in North Africa. August 30, 1943 Eisenhower is promoted to permanent Brigadier and Major General. December 1943 he is named Supreme Commander of Allied Expeditionary Forces. The Allied Forces were under Eisenhower’s command in the invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944. He would be promoted to General of the Army on December 20, 1944. He would be appointed Military Governor of the U.S. occupied f orces in Germany. He is designated Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army and returns to the U.S. from World War II on November 19, 1945. His wartime as General gets him converted to permanent rank of General on April 11, 1946. He publishes his novel Crusade in Europe which was a memoir to his service as Supreme Allied Commander in the European Theater of Operations and would go on to be a best seller. On June 7, 1948 Eisenhower takes duties as President of

9: Columbia University in New York City. On December 19, 1950 he is named Supreme Allied Commander of NATO in Europe and given operational command of NATO and U.S. forces in Europe. On May 31, 1952 Eisenhower retires from active duty in the army. On June 4, 1952 he announces his candidacy. In July 1952 he resigns as General of Army. He announces if elected as President he will go to Korea. November 4, 1952 Eisenhower receives 33 million votes and defeats his Adlai Stevenson’s in a landslide in which Adlai only received 27 million votes. November 29, 1952 Eisenhower deports for Korea to review the military situation over there.

10: Dwight’s Domestic Dilemmas By: Samantha Saltzman | President Eisenhower was welcomed into office with a heaping dose of “Red Scare.” The reason for this red scare was none other than Joseph | McCarthy, a senator from Wisconsin, who in 1950 claimed that he had a list of people who worked in the government who had ties to Communism.

11: These claims led to an investigation which lasted until 1954. In April of 1954, Joseph McCarthy made another claim. This time, he claimed that there were Communists in the military. This time, Joseph McCarthy had gone too far and a group of senators held televised hearings to look into his charges, which became known as the Army-McCarthy hearings. It soon became clear that these stories had been made up to further McCarthy’s career. Although McCarthy was condemned for his misconduct, he had destroyed the lives and careers of countless people. Another milestone in 1954 was the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The case involved seven-year-old African American Linda Brown. While she lived close to an all-white school, she was forced to attend an all-black school across town. Her father, along with other families, sued to allow African American children to attend nearby all-white schools. The Supreme Court ultimately decided that segregation in public schools is

12: illegal and all schools were to be desegregated. In 1955, an African American woman in Montgomery, Alabama, named Rosa Parks, refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. She was arrested for breaking the law, which stated that African Americans were allowed to sit in the middle of the bus, but if a white passenger came on, the white could take the seat. Rosa Parks’ arrest led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, led by Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King encouraged people to walk, ride bicycles, and carpool instead of riding buses. In 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that Montgomery segregated buses were illegal. The bus boycott lasted from December of 1955 to November of 1956. In 1956, Congress passed the Highway Act, which paid for a new national system of interstate highways. The interstate highway system linked the states together. This new system greatly increased business and personal travel across the country. The highway

13: system also made it easier for many middle-class Americans to move to the suburbs and commute to work. In 1957, the NAACP recruited nine African American students to | integrate Central High School in the town on Little Rock, Arkansas. This group of students became known as the Little Rock Nine. Little Rock was highly segregated at the time, and many whites tried to stop the integration. Governor Faubus tried to appeal to halt the integration. He went so far as to go on TV the night before and declare that the National Guard would prevent the Little Rock Nine from entering the school. President Eisenhower tried to get Governor Faubus to

14: follow the law, but Faubus refused. In response, President Eisenhower sent federal troops to desegregate Central High School and to escort the Little Rock Nine to school. The next year, eight of the nine students remained.

15: President Eisenhower had many dilemmas, both foreign and domestic, to deal with during his presidency. The American public felt that he had handled these problems with confidence and elected him to two terms. He greatly helped America’s domestic affairs as well as foreign.

16: Eisenhower's Foriegn Policy By: Sam Dominick During the terms severed in office by Dwight D. Eisenhower, many foreign policies and conflicts arose. Many major incidents between the U.S., and the other leading superpower of the world, the Soviet Union, occurred during his presidency. Many other policies against communism arose and many changes in government of other nations changed. Starting his term, the concluding of the Korean War was taking place. It was decided during his term, that Korea will be separated, North and South, at the 38th parallel. But this only played a larger role in battles of communism during his two terms. In his first year in office, many threatening advancements were made pertaining to the Soviet Union. On August 12, 1953, it was known that the Soviet Union had successfully tested a thermonuclear, or hydrogen, bomb. Eisenhower

17: addressed the public directly. This was primarily one of America’s greatest fears, that another country, communist, had nuclear weapons. As a result, on December 8th, 1953, Eisenhower his “Atoms for Peace” speech to the United Nations. This was a proposal was for internationsl atomic agencies to be formed, for mutual and peaceful use of atomic energy. While things continued to heat up between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., elsewhere in the world, conflicts were occurring. On March 13th, 1954, the Vietminh begin a siege at Dien Bien Phu. Later, on May 7th of that year, the French surrendered to the Vietminh. The following day, there was the Geneva Conference of Indochina, which was where the final seperation agreements for Vietnam occurred. It was decided the country would be separated at the 17th parallel. Later in 1954, on November 29, Eisenhower approved the building of thirty U-2 spy planes. Less than one year later, on July 21st, 1955, Eisenhower proposed the “Open Skies” policy, to the Soviets.

18: This was an agreement allowing mutual air reconnaissance over foreign nations air space and military bases. The Soviets rejected the President’s proposal. As another year of Eisenhower’s term passes, the President now releases sufficient quantities of Uranium 235 for peaceful use, domestically and foreign. In the next few months, in June of 1956, Eisenhower approves the allowance of U-2 spy planes over the U.S.S.R. In an unfamiliar part of the war, a crisis is growing in the later months of August to November of 1956. The Suez Crisis is growing in Egypt, between Egypt and the French, Brittish, and Isreali. On October 31st, Eisenhower deplores an attack to prevent further crisis. The next year of Eisenhower’s term, 1957, on March 9th, what is unofficially known as the Eisenhower Doctrine, was signed. This stated that U.S. forces would assist Middle East nations threatened by the spread of communism. Later in July, on the 29th, the U.S. ratifies the International Atomic Energy Agency, much like what

19: Eisenhower proposed in 1953 in this “Atoms for Peace” speech. In the next few months the Soviets jump ahead of the U.S. by launching Sputnik, on October 4th. This leads to the forming of N.A.S.A. In November of 1958 to 1959, the Berlin Crisis occurs in Germany. Krushchev says he plans a peace treaty with East Germany, but the western powers must withdrawl from West Berlin. During 1959, 90 miles from the tip of Florida, Fidel Castro, a Soviet trained communist, leads forces and overthrows the Batista Regime in Cuba. This is the first communist nation in the western hemisphere. Despite previous differences, peace seems to begin a start between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. In September 15th to the 27th, Premier Krushchev visit’s the U.S. It seems that the Cold War is thawing. This only seems so until May 1st of 1960, when a U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet’s. The pilot, Francis Gary Powers survived, and revealed the planes purpose. Fifteen days later, the Paris Summit came to a crash when Krushchev demanded apology from

20: Eisenhower for the spy plane. Peace between the two nations ended once again. As a final foreign policy, Eisenhower states on January 3rd, 1961, in his last year in office, that the United States severed all diplomatic relations with the communist nation of Cuba. All these things happened under Eisenhower’s foreign policy. The seperation of two southeast Asian countries, the first satelite launches into space, which launched the space race, the heat up and cool down of the Cold War at the time, and the forming of the first communist nation in the western hemisphere. During the terms severed in office by Dwight D. Eisenhower, many foreign policies and conflicts arose. Many major incidents between the U.S., and the other leading superpower of the world, the Soviet Union, occurred during his presidency. Many other policies against communism arose and many changes in government of other nations changed. Starting his term, the concluding of the Korean War was taking place. It was decided during his term, that

21: Korea will be separated, North and South, at the 38th parallel. But this only played a larger role in battles of communism during his two terms. In his first year in office, many threatening advancements were made pertaining to the Soviet Union. On August 12, 1953, it was known that the Soviet Union had successfully tested a thermonuclear, or hydrogen, bomb. Eisenhower addressed the public directly. This was primarily one of America’s greatest fears, that another country, communist, had nuclear weapons. As a result, on December 8th, 1953, Eisenhower his “Atoms for Peace” speech to the United Nations. This was a proposal was for internationsl atomic agencies to be formed, for mutual and peaceful use of atomic energy. While things continued to heat up between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., elsewhere in the world, conflicts were occurring. On March 13th, 1954, the Vietminh begin a siege at Dien Bien Phu. Later, on May 7th of that year, the French surrendered to the Vietminh. The following day, there was the Geneva Conference

22: of Indochina, which was where the final seperation agreements for Vietnam occurred. It was decided the country would be separated at the 17th parallel. Later in 1954, on November 29, Eisenhower approved the building of thirty U-2 spy planes. Less than one year later, on July 21st, 1955, Eisenhower proposed the “Open Skies” policy, to the Soviets. This was an agreement allowing mutual air reconnaissance over foreign nations air space and military bases. The Soviets rejected the President’s proposal. As another year of Eisenhower’s term passes, the President now releases sufficient quantities of Uranium 235 for peaceful use, domestically and foreign. In the next few months, in June of 1956, Eisenhower approves the allowance of U-2 spy planes over the U.S.S.R. In an unfamiliar part of the war, a crisis is growing in the later months of August to November of 1956. The Suez Crisis is growing in Egypt, between Egypt and the French, Brittish, and Isreali. On October 31st, Eisenhower deplores an attack to prevent further crisis.

23: The next year of Eisenhower’s term, 1957, on March 9th, what is unofficially known as the Eisenhower Doctrine, was signed. This stated that U.S. forces would assist Middle East nations threatened by the spread of communism. Later in July, on the 29th, the U.S. ratifies the International Atomic Energy Agency, much like what Eisenhower proposed in 1953 in this “Atoms for Peace” speech. In the next few months the Soviets jump ahead of the U.S. by launching Sputnik, on October 4th. This leads to the forming of N.A.S.A. In November of 1958 to 1959, the Berlin Crisis occurs in Germany. Krushchev says he plans a peace treaty with East Germany, but the western powers must withdrawl from West Berlin. During 1959, 90 miles from the tip of Florida, Fidel Castro, a Soviet trained communist, leads forces and overthrows the Batista Regime in Cuba. This is the first communist nation in the western hemisphere. Despite previous differences, peace seems to begin a start between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

24: In September 15th to the 27th, Premier Krushchev visit’s the U.S. It seems that the Cold War is thawing. This only seems so until May 1st of 1960, when a U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet’s. The pilot, Francis Gary Powers survived, and revealed the planes purpose. Fifteen days later, the Paris Summit came to a crash when Krushchev demanded apology from Eisenhower for the spy plane. Peace between the two nations ended once again. As a final foreign policy, Eisenhower states on January 3rd, 1961, in his last year in office, that the United States severed all diplomatic relations with the communist nation of Cuba. All these things happened under Eisenhower’s foreign policy. The seperation of two southeast Asian countries, the first satelite launches into space, which launched the space race, the heat up and cool down of the Cold War at the time, and the forming of the first communist nation in the western hemisphere.

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