FC: Westward Expansion | By: Morgan Bruns
1: O'Sullivan declared it wasAmerica's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence gives us." O'Sullivan meant that the United States was clearly destined to extend its boundaries all the way to the Pacific Ocean. | Ideas Manifest Destiny was the 19th century belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid 1850s.
2: Ideas As the United States moved closer to civil war, the country divided more and more. Sectionalism became a problem. This is the loyalty to a part of a nation, but not the nation as a whole. Americans saw themselves as Southerners or Northerners. People who lived in different parts of the country often disagreed. This was true even in Congress.
3: Steamboats River travel made it necessary to invent a new means of transportation. Some kind of boat was needed to get from the East to the West. So the steamboat was born this allowed for quicker travel on rivers. Canals were also a new way to travel where no water originally flowed. These man-made river systems made steamboat travel that much easier.
4: The California gold rush brought in people from all over the world in hopes of striking it rich. More than 80,000 people came to California in 1849 alone. By the end of 1848 they had taken $6 million from the American River.
5: "We wish to remain on the land of our fathers." -Cherokee | In a horrible act, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which allowed the fed government to relocate the Indians to the Indian Territory(small area of land in OK). This was carried out by thousands of soldiers, and was known as the Trail of Tears. | tribe chief | Removal of Native Americans
6: Natural/Geographic New game or hunting animals became large factors of the new settlers. They could now and were hunting Buffalo. The buffalo were huge and a very important food and material source for people. The new settlers hunted the great buffalo. Native Americans had already been living off the buffalo for hundreds of years.
7: The Oregon Country | The huge area between the Pacific and the Rockies north of CA was the Oregon Country (present-day OR, WA, ID, MT, WY, and BC, Canada). Many Americans wanted ownership of this vast land, and this desire caused Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to negotiate with the various countries, who controlled the land, for ownership.
8: Farming Though farming didn't really change the land, it did change the ways that Americans lived. They now were responsible for caring for their crops and fields. Farming was very important to a lot of people because it provided a sense of responsibility and ownership. Common crops included corn, cotton, and tobacco, as well as other vegetable gardens to support a family.
9: Canals Canals became very important to the geography of the land. These man made waterways were very practical and began to be built all over after De Witt Clinton completed the canal that connected New York to the great lakes.
10: Social To enjoy themselves and have some fun, often times men would participate in various sporting games, but most commonly, wrestling. The Americans brought over this strong tradition from England, and also found that the Native American boys enjoyed the sport as well. Wrestling served as a popular activity at county fairs, holiday celebrations, and in military training.
11: Back then Leisurely activities for women included quilting and sewing parties. The only cloth that settlers had was whatever they had carried with them or was imported from England. As a result, all textiles were expensive, and the early American housewife learned to make use of every bit of cloth. These parties provided a chance of recreation, to talk and half a good time
12: Political The election of 1828 was very unique in that nominations were no longer made by government caucuses, but by state legislatures.The Election was between Andrew Jackson and J.Q. Adams. The whole election was nothing but public shots toward each candidate. Adams was accused of mis-using funds, while Jackson was accused of murder. At the end, Jackson won by a long shot, claiming the presidency.
13: Political The seventh president of the US, Jackson divided everything political into two parties: Democratic and Republican. He was the military governor of FL, and the toughness of war rubbed off on his presidency, giving him the nickname Old Hickory.
14: Economic In order to maintain the transportation systems of America, the government came up with a plan that they should take care of ways to travel, like tending to old canals, roads, and railroads. Also a national bank was to be set up to keep the country out of debt. Tariffs were to pay for these improvements.
15: Industrial Revolution Also at this time was the Industrial Revolution. This was the tremendous change from an agrarian society to a more industry-based one. People left their farms and homes to work instead in the mills and earn wages. Various new technologies and ideas made the manufacturing work experience much more efficient. So many people were switching professions.
16: Cultural The sport lacrosse was initially invented by Native Americans. The Choctaw tribe's version of the game was very physical and very popular. It was played with two tall goals, sticks, and a ball. The game lasted until one team reached 100 goals, or until one hour's time was up. Many Native American people enjoyed playing recreational games, and this one was a favorite.
17: What was In Fashion at this time for women was corsets, bustles, and balloon sleeves. For men it was cravats and styled bushy facial hair. Their were a few authors at this time that were well known and very popular. Such as Charles Dickens, Charlotte Bronte, George Eliot, and Oscar Wilde, Reading their books was an honorable task
18: Technological/Scientific The power loom was invented in 1785 by Edmund Cartwright. This invention could weave thread into cloth. The spinning jenny was a revolutionary invention by James Hargreaves in 1764. This machine spun thread, and made it possible to perform multiple steps in making cloth by machine, saving time and money.
19: The Cotton Gin The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney of Mass. in 1793. This was a simple machine that removed seeds from cotton fibers. It did the amount of work of 50 workers in half the time. The cotton gin revolutionized production for plantation owners it helped everyone though because cotton could be prepared quicker making it less expensive.
20: Conclusion Throughout history, there has always been change. In the 1700-1800s in the US, that change came from Indian Removal and westward expansion. For the Native Americans, this change was very hard and probably not what most of them wanted. They were forced to leave their homeland and were treated poorly and disrespectfully by the Americans. The lives of the Indians were transformed by the decision and events of the Indian Removal Act, which was passed by President Jackson. The Native Americans did not have a choice.
21: Native Americans were tricked into signing unfair treaties that gave up their lands. They would then be moved to small reservations often very far away from their homes. Mainly toward the Western states. We have to remember to learn and appreciate our history so we don't make the same mistakes twice, and so we know about a lot of the cool things that happened in the past.
22: Works Cited Primary Source= Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 20, 1848. news.google.com Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic. Chicago: McGraw Hill, 2005. Bellis, Mary. "The Cotton Gin and Eli Whitney." www.About.com
23: Bibliography Ideas Conclusion Works Cited Natural/geographic Social Political Economic Cultural Technology