S: Westward Expansion
BC: Westward Expansion By Ben Lindstrom
FC: Westward Expansion By Ben Lindstrom Pre-IB History April 27, 2010
1: Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States. He adopted the idea that the government was going to be by the people, not just of the people. | Political | Andrew Jackson was a very influential president. He befriended the Natives after fighting them he was in a militia.
2: Andrew Jackson became a militia man and fought the Natives. He was given the nickname "Old Hickory" for his toughness.
3: Although Jackson was unschooled in theory, he was a good tactician and strategist. He thoroughly prepared for battle and acted quickly and resourcefully to take the enemy by surprise.
4: Turnpikes were used to help pay for construction. A turnpike is a road on which people may travel for a fee. | Inventions
5: The textile mills were invented in 1742. Many people moved from working on farms to working in factories, such as textile mills.
6: In 1733, the Flying Shuttle was invented by John Kay. | It was an improvement to looms that helped the weavers weave faster.
7: The water Frame was invented in 1764 by Richard Arkwright. It was the first powered textile machine. They had to have these in every textile mill in order to get their jobs done.
8: In August, of 1619, the first ship of slaves from Spain came over into North Virginia. | Slaves
9: Slaves were used to get the work done. They were mostly used for the crop season. Slaves mostly consisted of African Americans, but with some Spaniards.
10: Indian Removal Act | Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. This act allowed the government to pay the Natives to move west. Jackson sent officials to negotiate treaties with the Natives of the Southwest.
11: The Cherokee Nation | The Cherokee refused to give up their land. In the 1790's, the government recognized the Cherokee people in Georgia as a separate nation with their own laws.
12: Trail of Tears | The government persuaded the Cherokee to sign a treaty giving up their land, in 1835. Most Cherokee did not honor the treaty, and they refused to give up their land. Jackson sent an army of 7,000 soldiers to remove the Cherokee and lead them west.
13: Native American Resistance | In 1832, the Sauk chief, Black Hawk, led a force of Sauk people back to Illinois. They wanted to take back the land that was originally theirs, which was given up in a treaty. Illinois state militia responded with 4,500 soldiers. They chased the Sauk back to the Mississippi River and slaughtered nearly all of them.
14: Americans from different parts of the country disagreed on some issues, such as the tariff. A tariff is a fee paid by merchants who import goods. | Economy
15: Southern politicians and plantation owners were about to act. Vice President John C. Calhoun argued that a state has the right to nullify, which means to cancel, a federal law it considers against the state's interest. | Nobody was exactly sure where Andrew Jackson stood on the issue of nullification. Everyone wanted him to side with them, the Union or the South. Jackson was invited to speak at a dinner where he spoke directly to Calhoun and said " Our federal union...must be preserved!" Then Calhoun raised his glass and said " The Union-next to our liberty, most dear."
16: Continued....... with what he said, he meant that the fate of the Union must take second place to overrule the Constitution if its interests weren't threatened.
17: The Southerner's anger was continuing to increase over the tariffs and the Union was on the verge of splitting apart. In 1832, congress passed a new law, hoping the South would calm down, but they did not. | The Nullification Crisis
18: Settling in Oregon Americans began to travel to Oregon in the 1830's. Many joined the journey because of reports about fertile land. There was also economic trouble at their homes, so they would get a fresh start in the west.
19: The Whitman Mission Some of the first settlers of Oregon were missionaries. They wanted to bring Christianity to the Native Americans. Marcus Whitman and his wife built a mission among the Cayuse, near Walla Walla, Washington.
20: Who/What made change happen? - The Americans were the cause of all of the Natives' troubles. They forced them to leave their homeland, they deceived them, and Andrew Jackson betrayed them. The Americans need for land was the reason that the Natives were treated that way.
21: What has changed? - We now no longer boot people out of their territory and kill them. Besides, America is a country of all people, Natives and non Natives alike. Natives are now all part of America, and live among us whether they live on reservations or not.
22: What can we learn from the past? - We can learn from our previous mistakes. We now know that stealing people's land is bad. We know what ideas and methods work and which one's don't. We know how to pick a president who doesn't hate other races and minorities, like Andrew Jackson!
23: How did decisions or actions significantly transform people's lives? - The decision to take the Natives' land changed the Natives' life forever, and also the Americans. The Natives had to move west and had to start their lives over. They had to build new houses and learn the area's land so they could hunt and find berries and other edibles. The American's lives changed because they gained more land and expanded.
24: What values, skills, and forms of knowledge did people need to succeed? - People needed to know how to farm, because farming was a major lifestyle for people. They needed to be smart in order to get a good job. They also needed money in order to provide for their family, pay the doctor if needed, and also get a good education.
25: Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic. New York, New York. McGraw Hill, 2005.