S: Anna N. Ramirez GVSU EDR 621 Reading Theories
FC: A Family of Readers
1: Created by: Anna Ramirez for EDR 621 Grand Valley State University Fall 2010
2: Social ConstructivismFamily As a family we believe learning takes place in a socio cultural environment. What we learn and how we make sense of knowledge depends on our social context. | founding father ~ Vygotsky
3: Teaching and learning are fundamental human endeavors.
4: During the 1930s and 1940s, constructivism was the leading perspective among public school educators in the United States. Elements of reading: code breaking (decoding), meaning making (dialogue is key), text use (purpose), test analyzing (text awareness) | Social Constructivism
5: 1930s & 1940s | Jean Piaget
6: Reader's Response | circa 1930s
7: "Reading is a unique coming-together of a particular personality and a particular text at a particular time and place under particular circumstances" ~Louise Rosenblatt | Louise Rosenblatt
8: "Words are just ink on a page until a reader comes along and breathes life into them" —Louise Rosenblatt | Stanley Fish (1938- ) Developed concept of interpretive communities and argues that a text does not have meaning beyond an individual culture that has established a set of assumptions. The meaning we find in texts depends on the cultural context we bring to the text. | Louise Rosenblatt (1904-2005) Developed theory for her dissertation at Harvard in the 1930s.
9: Reader- Response | "The purpose of a good education is to show you that there are three sides to a two-sided story." — Stanley Fish | Efferent reading: Reading for the purpose of gaining information Aesthetic reading: reading that elicits an emotional response The reader brings to meaning. Experiences with text are different each time you read it. You bring different experiences when reading. Example: Reading response journal | Focuses on the reader and their experience with the text. Primary focus falls on the reader and the process of reading rather than on the author or the text. There is no one "correct" meaning.
10: Michael Pressley | Cognitive Psychologists
11: Top~Down | 1950s | P. David Pearson
12: Readers use all sources of information (knowledge of topic, text structure, sentence structure, word meanings, letter/sound correspondences) to make predictions and hypotheses about upcoming text | There was a shift in research away from observable behaviors to unobservable cognitive behaviors related to learning. Built on assumption that the reading process is primarily driven by what is in the readers head rather than by what is on the printed page.
13: Background knowledge -Includes information from many sources: knowledge of topic, text structure, sentence structure, word meanings, letter/sound correspondences | Cognitive Psychologists | When upcoming text is inconsistent with readers expectations, reading is slowed and reader attends more to actual printed text Top down term comes from heavy reliance on reader rather than text (what is going on in readers mind rather than in the text) The meaning of a text is not contained in the words on the page. Instead, the reader constructs meaning by making connections between the new information and what the reader already knows. | Top-Down Methods & Materials -more students talk -reading self-selected texts -writing before they can read & while learning to read -teaching spelling/grammar from the students writings -read alouds & conversations -shared reading -modeling
14: Psycholinguistics, according to Kenneth Goodman (1969), is the study of the relationship between how language works, how it is used, and its relationship to thought. | “Learning is not an occasional event, to be stimulated, provoked, or reinforced. Learning is what the brain does naturally, continually.” - Frank Smith
15: Psycholinguistic Family
16: A family is pieced together with hope and faith. A family is quilted and bound with love and grace. | The study of the comprehension and production of language in its spoken, written and signed forms. -interplay between readers mind and the printed text Another way to say it is the study of the relationship between how language works, how it is used, and its relationship to thought. | Established
17: Three Cueing Systems | Syntactic - Structure -Grammatical structures that allow readers to predict what words are coming next -Not just any word will fit in the spaces. -In English, word order matters a great deal. -We have inflected endings, function words, and punctuation that provide structure. Semantic - Meaning -Meanings of words and phrases that allow reader to predict the next words -Our background knowledge helps us to make meaning while reading. -Good readers monitor their comprehension and employ "fix-up" strategies when things don't make sense. -Our mental vocabulary networks are constantly evolving -Reading does not truly take place without comprehension. Graphophonic- Visual -Visual patterns of letters and words and their corresponding sounds that allow readers to predict the next words -Letter-sound correspondences (phonics) -Allows us to pronounce unknown words | 1950s & 1960s
18: Socio- Linguistic
19: established 1970s
20: Our most treasured family heirlooms are our sweet family memories. | Shirley Brice Heath
21: Broadens understanding of literacy to involve more than cognitive processes. Its the social and cultural factors that influence linguistic communication. The study of the sociological factors involved in the use of language, including gender, race, class, etc. Based on the idea that reading involves both a social and a linguistic process. Language is the foundation upon which childrens reading and writing achievement is built. Oral language knowledge provides children with an intuitive understanding of the structure of language that helps them predict text and read fluently at a later age. Oral language is also the foundation for vocabulary learning and later helps children comprehend words and messages that they read. The mind is a pattern recognizer that operates by extracting patterns from experience. In the classroom: whole language and using the students' experiences as part of the reading process.
22: Behaviorist Family | Beliefs: *Reading is a passive process *Reading is directly observable and can be measured *Meaning occurs magically, a by product of reading *Text be interpreted, only one way *every word must be read correctly *An emphasis is put on rules | John Watson | Ivan Pavlov
23: Promotes behavior practices in reading that include dividing literacy into discrete skills, focusing on attainment of objectives, and relying heavily on testing to monitor progress. | In the classroom: *Rote memorization such as Spelling test or math time tables *Structured sequence such as Basal series or systematic approaches *Standardized reading assessment because it can be measured | B.F.Skinner
24: Four Laws | Law of Readiness learning is easier when its preceded by easier tasks that progress to more difficult ones. | Law of Identical Elements the more learning elements are related to each other (content and procedure), the more transfer there will be from one situation to the next. | Laws of Exercises the more stimulus-response connections are practiced, the better the learning will be. | Law of Effect if an act is followed by a satisfying change in the environment, there is a greater chance that the behavior will be repeated. If the effect is not satisfying then the behavior is less likely to be repeated. | provided by: Edward Thorndike
25: B.F. Skinner
26: Graphic Organizer Representation I decide to make a scrapbook for my graphic organizer for the reading theories. The transactive reading theories are represented in this family album with a few scrapbooking pages which fit together by “family ties”. The transmissive theories were represented in the book as the “black sheep” of the family. These theorists have a stand alone background that does not tie into the transactive theories. I found this online scrapbook at www.mixbook.com. At this website, you can create an online scrapbook which can be merely shared online, for free or can be printed at a cost.
27: In each scrapbook page, I incorporated key figures, dates for developing their ideas, what they believed, and/or how the theory plays out in the classroom. In this album, the behaviorists are represented strictly in black and white. The other theories are all represented in colors and sephia tones.