FC: April Wigington River Valley Civilizations
1: Page 2 & 3: Mesopotamia Page 4 & 5: China Page 6 & 7: Egypt Page 8 & 9: Indus River Valley
2: Mesopotamia Sumer's earliest governments were controlled by the temple priests. The farmers believed that the success of their crops depended upon the blessings of the gods, and the priests were a go-between with the gods. Historians believe that the Sumerians invented the wheel, the sail, and the plow. Mesopotamia is known as the "fertile crescent" because of its dark, rich soil, and it's crescent shape. The Sumerians were Polytheistic, which means the belief in more than one god. They believed that the many god controlled the
3: various forces of nature. Sumerians created a system of writing called cuneiform. One of the first known maps was made on clay tablet in about 2300 B.C. Sumerians had three levels of social classes; at the top were the most powerful government officials, priests, and soldiers. The society's second level was made up of merchants, teachers, farmers, and craftsmen. At the bottom of the social scale were the slaves. With the development of a city-state came the first major architectural structure called a ziggurat. Key crops grown in Mesopotamia were wheat and barley.
4: China In central China, the Yangtze river is east of the Yellow sea. The Huange He river flows in the north of China. The Buddhist religious beliefs and ideas traveled along central Asia trade routes in China. China's government is in Communist state. One of China's newest technology is the 968 kilometers high speed "Wu Guang" train located in central China.
5: In china they use a writing system called sinography, using Chinese characters. There are four major social classes in China. The highest class of people were the scholars and officials. The lowest was the Merchants. China is the fourth largest country in the world.
6: Egypt Egypt is divided into four main parts; The Nile River Valley, The Arbian Desert, The Libyan Desert, and The Sinai. Egypt is 50 feet below sea level. the area of Egypt is 386662 square miles. By 200 B.C., the tools changed from bronze tools, to iron tools, which helped them build great monuments. The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphics.
7: Egypt is governed under the constitution of 1971 as amended. The Pharaon had the highest social status in ancient Egypt and was head of the country. prisoners and criminals belonged to the lowest class of Egypt. The people of ancient Egypt were polytheistic. Some of the Gods they worshiped were Anubis, Set, Orsiris, Iris, and Horus.
8: Indus River Valley The Indus River Valley is located between the Indus and Ganges rivers. The environment in the Indus valley consists of seasonal monsoons. Technology in the Indus valley is sewage and plumbing systems. Written language is also apart of the Indus valleys technology. The Indus valley government was ran by religious leaders. The Indus river valley feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Arabian sea, From about 2600 B.C. to 1700 B.C. a vast number of settlements were built on the banks of the Indus river and surrounding areas.
9: The cities of the Indus Valley were all organized and soildly built out of brick and stone. The drainage systems, wells, and water storage systems were the most sophisticated in the ancient world. Unlike some other ancient civilizations, we are still unable to read the Indus River Valley's writing.