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S: Mi'kmaq

FC: The East Coast Natives The Mi'kmaq | By: David Pasoff, Taryn Simon, Gabriel Feldman and Miya Hames

1: Table Of Contents | Homes pg.2 food pg.3 Clothing pg.4,5 Beothuk pg.6 language pg.7 Bibliography Pg.8 | On the cover you saw the Mi'kmaq flag and the symbols on that flag were a cross, moon and sun and blank white space. The cross represents mankind and infinity (four directions). The moon represents the force of the night and the sun symbolizes the force of the day. Last but not least, the white space symbolizes the purity of creation because it surrounds everything that is a creation.

2: The Mi’kmaq lived in houses very similar to tipis but they were called “wigwams.” The wigwam was made by softening tree branches and bending them into a dome shape. On the base was animal skin and the outside layer could be fur or birch bark. No matter what the outside layer was, the door would always be made of hide and fur. It had a fire pit in the middle and beds surrounding the fire pit. The wigwam could hold from twelve to fifteen people inside. There were no windows and the light would come from a hole in the top; the hole was also used to let smoke out. If there was a fire, the light would come from the flame; if there was no fire then the light would come from the sunlight. The smoke hole could also be closed in bad weather so they would not get rained out. Last but not least, the word wigwam comes from the Mi’kmaq word “Winkoum” which means dwelling. | Homes

3: The Mi’kmaq hunted moose, deer, rabbits, caribou, elk, buffalo, bear, beaver, porcupines, and squirrels. They hunted with spears and bows. From the ocean, they got eel, salmon, seal, whale, sturgeon, walrus, porpoises, lobster, squid, shellfish, and sea birds. They dried and smoked the meat and fish to preserve it so it didn’t get rotten. Fruits and vegetables also accounted for a large part of their diet. They ate berries, blueberries, rice, squash, plums and cherries. The plants they gathered from the wild provided them with many vitamins and minerals. They used blueberries to make tea for headaches. The blueberry leaves and roots were boiled and applied to sore joints. The Mi’kmaq had a very healthy diet. | Food

4: THE MIKMAQ’S CLOTHES WERE MADE FROM MAMMAL HIDE. TO MAKE CLOTHES THEY TANNED THE HIDE USING ANIMAL BRAINS, BIRD LIVERS, OIL, AND SMOKING. STRETCHING SKINS PRODUCED LEATHER. BONE AWLS WERE USED TO MAKE HOLES IN THE LEATHER FOR SEWING. ANIMAL SINEW, SEPARATED INTO FINE STRANDS, SERVED AS THREAD. MEN WORE A LOOSE ROBE OF FUR OR SKIN. THEY WORE A BLANKET OVER THEIR SHOULDERS; IT WAS OPEN IN FRONT FALLING TO THE KNEES. LEGGINGS OF MOOSE/CARIBOU OR SEAL HIDE WERE TIED AT THE HIP TO A LEATHER GIRDLE. MOCCASINS WERE MADE FROM MOOSE OR SEAL SKIN. SOME CARRIED TOBACCO POUCHES. WOMEN WORE ROBES WRAPPED AROUND THEIR BODY. THEY WRAPPED THEM UNDER THEIR ARMS AND BELTED THEM AT THE WAIST.THEY FELL TO BELOW THEIR KNEES. WOMEN OFTEN WORE SLEEVES OF FUR OR LEATHER AND THE CLOTHING WAS DECORATED WITH GEOMETRIC DESIGNS OR PATTERNS OF BIRDS, BEASTS AND HUMANS. THE PIGMENTS USED FOR PAINTING WERE RED AND YELLOW. IF YOU MIXED FISH ROE, BIRD EGG YOLKS OR ANIMAL FAT WITH OCHRE FROM THE EARTH, YOU COULD PAINT YOUR BODY. ANIMAL TEETH, CLAWS, BONE AND QUILLS WERE SEWN ONTO THE CLOTHING; THE FEATHERS WERE USED AS ORNAMENTS. SOME MEN WORE A BIRD WING ON THE SIDE OF THE HEAD. DYES FOR DECORATING QUILLS CAME FROM ROOTS, BARK, LEAVES AND FLOWERS. WHEN EUROPEANS CAME, THE MI'KMAQ TRADED AND RECEIVED CLOTH, RIBBONS, AND BEADS IN EXCHANGE FOR FURS. THEY FOUND NEW WAYS TO USE QUILLS AND MOOSE HAIR ON CLOTH AND WORKED RIBBON AND BEADS INTO TRADITIONAL DESIGNS. | Clothes

5: BY THE 19TH CENTURY, THE WOMAN'S COSTUME INCLUDED A BEADED PEAKED CAP AND A WOOLEN SKIRT. THE MAN'S COAT REFLECTED EUROPEAN MILITARY UNIFORMS. CHILDREN WORE SMALLER VERSIONS OF ADULT COSTUMES AND BABIES WERE WRAPPED IN THE SOFTEST SKINS OF FOX OR GOOSE. IN CONCLUSION, THEY MADE AND WORE VERY ATTRACTIVE CLOTHES WITH THE RESOURCES THEY HAD.

6: In the East Coast there was a different group of Natives. These Natives were the Beothuk. The Beothuk came from Newfoundland . The Beothuk supposedly spoke Algonquian. They hunted with weapons such as spears, harpoons and the bow and arrow. The main foods they hunted were sea foods such as seals, fish, salmon etc. In the winter the Beothuk ate caribou as their main source of protein. They came into conflict with the Europeans because of food and land. The Beothuk died a slow death of starvation, disease and they were killed by the Europeans. So many Beothuk died that they became extinct. The Beothuk group was a fascinating group of Natives; they hunted certain animals, they had a varied diet and in general the Beothuk lived an interesting life, until their contact with the Europeans caused them to become extinct. | Beothuk | Maritime Provinces

8: The Mi’kmaq did not have a very confusing alphabet. The alphabet only had eleven consonants, two forms of vowels and five vowels. As you can see there were only sixteen letters. The vowel sounds were “a,” “e,” “i,” “o,” and “u.” The two forms of letters were long and short; if the letter was long then it would be held for longer and would be a letter followed by an apostrophe. The consonant sounds are “p,” “t,” “k,” “j,” “l,” “m,” “n,” “q,” “s,” “w,” “y.” It may sound easy to write the alphabet of the Mi’kmaq but they wrote using hieroglyphics. | The Language

10: Bibliography Gabriel’s Jot notes Helen Sylliboy, THE MICMAC "HIEROGLYPHICS, 1998 http://198.62.75.1/www1/pater/JPN-micmac.html http://www.historica.ca/the_beothuk.php Museum of Novascotia 2002 Museum.gov.ns.ca/arch/infos/mikmaq1.htm Patsy Paul-Martin, Mi’kmaq Talking Posters, Millbrook First Nation http://www.firstnationhelp.com/ali/posters/poster1.html Nova Scotia Museum, Archaeology in Nova Scotia, 2002 Waycobah First Nation Secondary School, Waycobah First Nation, 2012, www.yahooanswers.com Silvey, Diane ‘’ The Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada’’ John Mantha 2005

11: Have you have ever wondered about the M'ikmaq tribe? Then this is the book for you... | This book has food, homes, clothing, language and even things about the extinct Beothuk.

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