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China 2011

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China 2011 - Page Text Content

S: China 2011

FC: CHINA 2011

1: CHINA is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.4 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 3.7 million square miles. Governed by the Communist Party of China, it consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing, and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau. Its capital city is Beijing. China’s landscape is vast and diverse, with forest steppes and deserts occupying the arid north and northwest near Mongolia and Central Asia, and subtropical forests prevalent in the wetter south near Southeast Asia. The terrain of western China is rugged and elevated, with the towering Himalaya, Karakorum, Pamir and Tian Shan mountains separating China from South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, have their sources in the Tibetan Plateau and continue to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China’s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 9,000 miles long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas. The ancient Chinese civilization flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia (approximately 2000 BC) and ending with the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has fractured and been reformed numerous times. The Republic of China, founded in 1912 after the overthrow of the Qing, ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949. In the 1946–1949 phase of the Chinese Civil War, the Chinese Communists defeated the Chinese Nationalists on the mainland and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on October 1st, 1949. Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1978, China has become the world's fastest growing major economy, the world's largest exporter and second largest importer of goods. It is the world's second-largest economy after the United States.

2: SHANGHAI is the largest city by population and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in China with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010. Following rapid development over the last two decades it has become a leading global city with significant influence in commerce, culture, finance, media, fashion, technology and transport. It is a major financial centre and one of the world’s busiest container ports. Located in the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China, Shanghai sits at the mouth of the Yangtze River in the middle portion of the Chinese coast. Once a fishing and textiles town, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to its favorable port location and was one of the cities opened to foreign trade by the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. The city then flourished as a center of commerce between east and west, and became the undisputed financial hub of the Asia Pacific in the 1930s. However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, the city's international influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city.

12: The Tea House

16: The Silk Process

19: Suzhou Museum

20: The Lingering Garden

23: Suzhou Canal

24: Zhujiajiao (Water Village)

29: Hubei Provincial Museum

36: THREE GORGES DAM is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang in Hubei province. The dam body was completed in 2006 except for a ship lift, with the originally planned components of the project being completed on October 30, 2008 when the 26th turbine began commercial operation. Each turbine has a capacity of 700 MW. Six additional turbines in the underground power plant became fully operational mid-2011. Coupling the dam's thirty-two main turbines with two smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW annually. As well as producing electricity, the dam increases the Yangtze River's shipping capacity, and reduces the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. The Chinese government regards the project as a historic engineering, social and economic success with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions. However, the dam flooded archaeological and cultural sites and displaced some 1.3 million people, and is causing significant ecological changes, making the dam a controversial topic both in China and abroad.

38: THE THREE GORGES region is a scenic area along the Yangtze River spanning from the Chongqing Municipality to Hubei province with a total length of approximately 120 miles. The Three Gorges are the Qutang Gorge at approximately 5 miles, the Wuxia Gorge at 28 miles and the most scenic Xiling Gorge is 41 miles in length. Although it is primarily famous for its scenery, the Three Gorges region is historically and culturally an important region in China.

56: Ghost City

62: XI'AN is the capital of the Shaanxi province. The two Chinese characters in the name Xi'an literally mean "Western Peace". One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang’an before the Ming Dynasty. Xi'an is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history. Xi'an is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army. Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of interior China, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational center of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China’s space exploration program. It is now one the most populous metropolitan area in inland China with more than 9 million inhabitants, including urban parts of Xianyang.

66: Small Wild Goose Pagoda

68: Muslim Quarter Market

70: Terracotta Warrior Museum

82: BEIJING, meaning "northern capital” is also known as Peking is the capital of the China and one of the most populous cities in the world with a population of over 20 million. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and is home to the headquarters for most of China’s largest state owned companies. The metropolis, located in northern China, borders Hebei province to the north, west, south, and a small section to the east, and Tian jin Municipality to the southeast. Governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the national government, Beijing is divided into 14 urban and suburban districts and two rural counties. It is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways passing through the city, and the destination of many international flights to China. Few cities in the world have served as long as the political and cultural centre of an area as immense. Beijing is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been the heart of China’s history for centuries and there is scarcely a major building of any age in Beijing that does not have at least some national historical significance. The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, and huge stone walls and gates. Its art treasures and universities have long made it a center of culture and art in China.

90: Tian'anmen Square

91: Forbidden City

97: Summer Palace

103: Great Wall

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