FC: ESL ONLINE TOOLBOX | Tabitha Flatt November 2011 ED 604A
1: This project will be used in conjunction with the other materials/resources/and articles reflecting recent studies for the growth of our ESL students. The pattern of bottoming out is NOT OK, and it is clear that more people need to understand how they can help. It has been my experience that it is NOT lack of want, but rather of knowledge, that keeps teachers from helping their students in the best ways possible, while still being able to meet the needs of others. Included are ways to work with ELLs that are possible, that will work in the REAL classroom-not just in the ideal/theoretical classroom. This book will serve to educate colleagues and friends about how they can really help...which is what every good teacher truly wants to do!
3: Dear Colleagues, What follows is a series of resources/information for use with ESL students. It has been said that the differentiation for ELLs is simply good teaching practice. While that is true, keep in mind that our ELLs need that and then some for their success. Inside this book are theories, strategies, descriptions of realistic expectations, and resources to help you help your students "unlock" their potential. All the best,
5: FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES | Turn the page to view some key characteristics of each and how these theories impact the teaching of ELL's
6: FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES | Think of language acquisition as a door that needs to be unlocked by the child.... | Nativists believe that the lock already comes with a set of keys: | Non-Nativists believe that the child needs to make the keys: | CHOMSKY- *innate knowledge of language *LAD-language acquisition device *Universal Grammar- rules of grammar are hard wired into the brain and manifest themselves without being taught *Based on his personal intuitions, NOT child studies | SKINNER (BEHAVIORIST) *Conditioning brings about learning *Rewards=continued behavior Consequences=end of behavior *All about ENVIRONMENT, not biology PIAGET (COGNITIVIST) *Children construct knowledge about language from scratch using a brain that is uniquely adapted to language
7: SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES | CHOMSKY- *"[The LAD]governs all human languages, and determines what possible form human language may take" | Stephen Krashen(Cognitivist) *distinction between learning and acquisition *Input Hypothesis-5 components: The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis, The Monitor Hypothesis, The Natural Order Hypothesis, The Input Hypothesis, The Affective Filter Hypothesis | The Cognitive View In the cognitive view FL learners are thought to creatively use their skills of cognition in order to figure out the L2 on their own. The learners notice a pattern and construct their own rules accordingly, then go back and change the rules if they are faulty. In this approach to L2 acquisition, the learners benefit from their mistakes because they are playing an active role in the FLL process and learning first-hand how the language works. http://chris1066.tripod.com/theories.html | BEHAVIORIST THEORY "Actions followed by an immediate positive effect tend to be repeated and actions followed by an immediate negative effect tend to be discontinued” -Skinner | Constructivists *cultural background is considered very important *teacher = facilitator *collaboration Humanistic approach *feelings, motivation, confidence *UP with positivity, out with negativity
8: The language acquisition theories don't have a lot of comparative, proclaimed overlap from first language to second language, however, I do see a lot of similarities. These theories give me a BASIS with which to work. All students are as different from each other as night and day, and what works for one will not necessarily work for another. These theories are so vastly different that I find that my beliefs and experiences lie somewhere in the middle.
9: Some things you can see me keeping in mind when I teach my kiddos: Krashen's i + 1 = give the students input they can understand at just a little higher level than they are at to provide growth. Krashen's affective filter = keep the anxiety low in the classroom even when the expectations are high Contructivist Project Based Learning = students perform self discovery of information, forms, language, rules, etc, through guided independent/group work
10: "Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers." --Josef Albers | Abdón- Born in Texas (along with three other siblings), parents from Mexico, been in Wisconsin for 3 years, has tubes in his ear/hearing aids because he just recently found out that he had excessive build/up drainage that kept him from clearly understanding what people were saying in ANY language. He communicates decently in both languages but his speech is more than imperfect. Selina-Born in Mexico, raised in Texas for awhile then Wisconsin for the last 3 years, sucks her thumb excessively, cannot read well in Spanish but is doing well in English reading. Julio-Born in Wisconsin, parents born/raised in Mexico, been here for 4 years. Does not have a firm grasp on either language. His father speaks English, his mother Speaks Spanish, and they are married, but neither one speaks much of the other language. Luis-Born in Honduras (one little sister also born in Honduras), raised in Wisconsin, been here for 7 years. Luis speaks with little to no accent and does well on all English/Spanish assignments. Kayla- Born in Texas, parents born in Mexico but raised in Texas, three siblings (all born in Texas), cannot read in either language very well—she is a guesser. Carlos-Born in Mexico, parents born/raised in Mexico, 1 sibling born in Mexico, been in the US approx 8 months, very academically inclined. Does not speak English. He participates readily because he has a tremendously outgoing personality and loves to make people laugh! Pablo- Born in Wisconsin, raised in WI and Mexico (migrant student), no siblings. He speaks, reads, and writes both languages fluently but seems to be a terribly poor test taker.
11: MY INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT | ESL
12: FOCUSED READING CHART Goldenberg, Teaching English Language Learners, American Educator, Summer 2008 | STRATEGY ALERT! While reading an article, book, or even a short passage, students should use symbols to mark their thoughts within the reading! !=Interesting! ?=I don't understand. AHA!=I get it now! | = I knew that already!
13: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors are a tool teachers can use to differentiate and determine realistic expectations for ELLs from Pre-K to 12th grade. They are NOT intended to be used as goals to move onto the next level. WIDA's descriptors are aligned with ACCESS testing scores. Ask your ESL teacher or resource specialist how to find your students' scores! | http://www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/
14: WIDA CAN DO DESCRIPTORS: A COOL TOOL | Write a FRIENDLY LETTER using each of your vocabulary words. Be sure that your letter has all the right parts in all the right places (date, greeting, body, closing, signature). | Based on the story you read, tell me the answers to the following things: in complete sentences: What happened just BEFORE/AFTER ? What happened first, last, etc. ? What happens AFTER but BEFORE ? What happened between and ? What is the first step in ? Retell the events leading up to/following _______. Explain the steps for _______ and the reasons why. According to the article, what happened first? | Carlos-7 years old,2nd grade. Born in Mexico, parents born/raised in Mexico, 1 sibling born in Mexico, been in the US approx 8 months, very academically inclined. His knowledge and ability is at grade level in Spanish. Does not speak English. He participates readily because he has a tremendously outgoing personality and loves to make people laugh! His composite ACCESS score is 1. | TASK 1: | TASK 2: | For 2nd grade writing, WIDA's descriptors say that Carlos can copy words, draw pictures, label familiar items, and use Spanish to help form words in English. For task 1, Carlos should partner up for support and work with a friend to come up with a letter. Carlos can share Ideas by drawing and then after being edited, Carlos can copy his friend's letter. For task 2 based on reading skills, Carlos should be able to match print to visuals. Instead of answering the question, Carlos should be able to find the corresponding pictures from reading a shortened text. From there, Carlos can put events in chronological order based on the story!
15: WIDA CAN DO DESCRIPTORS: A COOL TOOL | Write a FRIENDLY LETTER using each of your vocabulary words. Be sure that your letter has all the right parts in all the right places (date, greeting, body, closing, signature). | Based on the story you just read, tell me the following things in complete sentences: What happened just BEFORE/AFTER ? What happened first, last, etc. ? What happens AFTER but BEFORE ? What happened between and ? What is the first step in ? Retell the events leading up to/following _______. Explain the steps for _______ and the reasons why. According to the article, what happened first? | Pablo- 9 years old, 4th grade. Born in Wisconsin, raised in WI and Mexico (migrant student), no siblings. He speaks, reads, and writes both languages fluently but seems to be a terribly poor test taker. His composite ACCESS score is 4. His reading and writing scores are 3 and his speaking score is 5. | TASK 1: | TASK 2: | For 3rd grade writing, WIDA's descriptors say that Pablo can produce simple narrative text. Pablo should be able to successfully write a letter guided by a sample in the front of the room. There should be charts specifically accessible by Pablo that list different types of appropriate wording for a friendly letter. Pablo can work with a partner for peer editing. For task 2, reading, Pablo and many others would benefit from the torn apart book strategy...Teachers take apart a book and place the pages in order in the front of the room for a constant visual reminder of the story. Pablo should then write his complete sentences within word frames to guide his academic language.
16: WHY USE WIDA CAN DO DESCRIPTORS: | The CAN DO Descriptors provide a starting point for working with ELLs! | Sensory, graphic and interactive support within the descriptors! | The CAN DO Descriptors are written for the entire preK-12 spectrum! | The information may be used to plan differentiated lessons or unit plans!
18: BUILDING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: | http://reading.ecb.org/teacher/priorknowledge/pk_lessonplans.html | http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/content/lessonplan/ | http://publicschoolteachersodyssey.blogspot.com/2011/05/building-background-knowledge-prior-to.html | http://www.sdesa6.org/content/docs/StrategiesVocabulary-080808.pdf | To the left are four websites with ideas including strategies and charts to help take background knowledge to the next level. I did two activities, a time-line and 5 senses chart. These activities helped children relate and hypothesize about what they were going to study. Because of these strategies, children were able to make inferences about stories they hadn't yet read AND they felt more connected while reading. They had a sense of ownership because they related. Activities like these will now be commonplace in my classroom because of the high comprehension I saw taking place across the board!
20: Reading DiFfeRentIaTIon | SUPPORTING ACADEMIC READING FOR ELLs
21: Organization is key for these strategies to work. Pre-reading or skimming is a skill that should be taught ahead of time. Pause and predict is much like the charts mentioned before, where we think ahead and share our thoughts with our reward being a nice connection to the story...background knowledge often comes into play here. The after reading strategy I chose was t/f statements. This keeps students from being overwhelmed and giving up, but is still a clear indicator of understanding. Because my students had a the clear expectation that I was going to ask them to produce more information, they produced more but without feeling overwhelmed. Many of these things are things good teachers do anyway, but if one were to focus on reading strategies a little more specifically, one would see RESULTS.
22: SUPPORTING ELLs WITHIN WRITING | TIPS TO REMEMBER WHEN CREATING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS FOR YOUR ELLs: *Think about where you want your graphic organizer to take your students....do you want an essay? Narrative or Expository? *Adding color-coding and/or pictures to a graphic organizer further increases the utility and readability of the visual display. *Keep age in mind...don't get too complicated! Chaotic organizers can distract more than they help! *Use the same type of graphic organizer throughout the unit depending on your genre and the task! | A great start to some graphic organizers can be found at: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/ | How can I support ELLs within their writing development? There are so many different possibilities to aid with writing development. Graphic organizers are incredibly effective. Another strategy I like to use is word frames. I frame a sentence around the content that we are learning, but pull some words from it (like a cloze activity). From there, students write the sentence AND fill in the blanks! Word walls also provide a sense of comfort to ELL's when they are writing. Within the room, one can find charts with examples of content/genre specific phrases. Students find those a rich resource.
24: Creating a Language Learning Rich Environment | Increasing the academic language used within my classroom is a relatively simple task, but one that I must focus on to remember to incorporate effectively. Some of the ways I am working on right now is focusing on meaning MORE than form rather than form alone or more form than meaning. It's important that students feel empowered and successful when they talk. From there, we can guide the talk in several ways. One of those ways is a commonly used and very important word wall. Secondly, I try to put my students into groups that can grow together in language. By providing clear expectations, sentence frames, "It sounds like this...." charts, etc., students are able to comfortably form academic words without having the anxiety that holds so many of them back.
25: A language rich classroom will probably have: *word walls-key vocabulary with pictures or definitions *lots of group work (collaborative) or Jigsawing *charts with academic phrases *modeled conversations *role-plays -rehearsed presentation of lines *opportunities for T-P-S and Info Gap Activities