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S: River Valley Civilizations

FC: Sabra Jordan River Valley Civilizations

1: Mesopotamia : Page 2 - 5 Indus River Valley : Page 6 - 9 China : Page 10 - 11 Egypt : Page 12 - 13 | Table of Contents

2: Mesopotamia : | 1.) Mesopotamia means "the land between two rivers". It was given that name because it lies between Tigris and Euphrates River. 2.) The Sumerian's said that their gods did the things that us humans do. Such as falling in love, having kids, and even arguing. 3.) Sumerian's only worked hard to earn protection from the gods. They thought that the souls of the dead went to "the land of no return". A dark, sad, and ugly place between the earth's crust and the ancient sea. 4.) Sumerian women could work as merchants, farmers, or artisans.Some could even read and write. The written record from Sumer, had a few female scribes. 5.) Arithmetic and geometry was created by Sumerian's to be able to build city walls and buildings, plan irrigation systems, and survey flood fields.

3: 6.) King of the Babylonian Empire, Hammurabi, made a list of 282 laws dealing with everything that was effecting the community. Including family relations, business conduct, and crime. 7.) There weren't any building stones in Sumer, Mesopotamia's city-state. So the Sumerians built their houses, public buildings, and city walls out of sun-dried mud bricks. 8.)

4: Mesopotamia

6: Indus River Valley | 1.) The tallest mountains in the world are the Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan. They are all located on the Indian subcontinent. 2.) Farming was only possible if it was watered by the Indus River. 3.) To keep water out of their cities, the people of India built human-made islands to prevent from being flooded. 4.) In most ancient cities,"wastes"were dumped into open drainage ditches or carried out of town. But in Mohenjo-Daro, a city in India, they built a system. The pipes under the houses, into an underground sewage system. 5.) The language for Indus people, Harappan, is impossible to decode. The reason for this is because it doesn't seem to match up with the Egyptian or Mesopotamian Language,

7: 6.) In the culture of the Harappans , it was suggested that weapons and conflict were limited. There were also many images of the artifacts . But the meanings remain a mystery, just like the Harappan language. 7.) The game "Chess" was originated in India. The person who invented it is unknown, but it is known that it traveled from India, to Persia, to Europe. 8.) India has the largest democracy in the world, the 6th largest country in the world, and one of the most ancient living civilizations. (At least 10,000 years old) 9.) The astronomer, Bhaskaracharya, calculated that it takes 365.2857566484days for the Earth to go around the Sun one time. 10.) In 700 B.C., the world's first university was built in Takshila, India. With more than10,500 students that studied more than 60 subjects.

9: Indus River Valley

10: China | 1.) China sits in between to rivers: Huang He (Yellow) and Yangtze. 2.) China seen their culture as the center of a civilized world. 3.) Because their families were central, the Chinese believe that their ancestors were ones that brought the blessings and curses upon them. 3.) It is the fourth largest country in the world. 4.) The Chinese language has 20,000 characters. But the average Chinese learn only 5,000. 5.) The oldest calender known is from China. It's based on the Lunar Cycle. A complete cycle would take 60 years. 6.)Three Gorges Hydroelectric Dam is the largest dam in the world. It's located along the Yangtze River.

11: 7.) Because China is such a big area, and they are so old in history, they have 206 languages in their culture. 8.) Silk material was to be kept a secret, and if anyone found out about it, then they would be killed. 9.) Cricket fighting is popular in China for amusement. 10.) Red is considered a lucky color in China. At one point in time, wedding dresses were red.

12: Egypt | 1.) A Pharaoh never let his hair be seen. There were to wear a headdress or a crown. 2.) Egyptian children couldn't wear clothing until they were teenagers because it was too hot to be wearing clothing outdoors. 3.) Egyptian men and women thought that make-up actually had healing power. It also protected them from the sun,. 4.) The people of Egypt thought that the Earth was flat and round, and that the Nile River flowed right through it. 5.) When a body was mummified, they would remove the brain through the nose. And they would take all the internal organs and put them in a jar. They would leave the heart because it was the "seat of the soul". Afterwards, they would bury the jar with the body, just in case it would be needed in the after-life.

13: 6.) In ancient China, they would use moldy bread and soils for medicine. The bread was used for infections. 7.) Hieroglyphics was either read left to right, or right to left. Which ever way the human or animal form faced in the inscriptions, is the direction that the inscription started. 8.) Cement was invented in Egypt. 9.) Egyptians created glass. 10.) The pyramids of Egypt are the last remaining ancient wonder of the world.

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