S: Caiti Jansen and Kym Werth
FC: Civil Rights Movement | "Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow."
1: Breaking Baseball's Color Line 1947 Jackie Robinson is the first black man to enter the Major leagues. He joined the Brooklyn Dodgers. Robinson held himself with dignity in spite of what he was called or when he was attacked. Robinson brought pride to the black people and was an amazing player.
2: "The legal battle against segregation is won, but the community battle goes on." Dorothy Day
3: "Segregation never brought anyone anything except trouble." Paul Harris | Equality in the Military 1948 In July Truman banned discrimination in hiring of federal employees. He also demanded an end to all discrimination and segregation within the armed forces. This let the people of America know what side the president was on.
4: “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place.” Chief Justice Earl Warren
5: Brown Versus the Board of Education 1954 On May 17th the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Brown and made what would become one of the most memorable rulings. They deemed that separate buildings could not be equal because they created a inferior complex for the children and therefore are no longer equal no matter the physical state of the facility.
6: "I knew someone had to take the first step and I made up my mind not to move." Rosa Parks
7: Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Rosa Parks, a seamstress, refused to move from her seat for a white passenger and she was thrown in jail. Jo Ann of Women's Political Council called for African Americans to refuse to use the Montgomery bus system. This aimed to force the company to change the segregation policy.
8: "Please, God, let me learn how to stop being a warrior. Sometimes I just need to be a girl." Melba Patillo Beals | “A person who can’t stand for something will fall for anything.”
9: Little Rock Nine September 1957 When segregated school were ruled against in the court case the process of desegregation began. The Little Rock Nine started this. They were the first black children to attend a "white" school. This took place in Little Rock, Arkansas.
10: “Many of the great achievements of the world were accomplished by tired and discouraged men who kept on working.”
11: The Creation of SNCC This took place on April 15th, 1960. SNCC stands for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. SNCC was created so the younger generations could play a more important role in the civil rights movements. Almost 200 students showed up to the first SNCC meeting.
12: “What seems to us as bitter trials are often blessings in disguise”
13: Sit In Protests | Sit-Ins were started in order to desegregate public places. The members of CORE would simply sit down at counters in restaurants or other public places that were segregated. The members would sit there until they were served or arrested.
14: Freedom Rides Teaming up with SNCC, CORE members went to the buses to stop segregation. The Boynton vs. Virginia case made it illegal to segregate buses, bus stations waiting rooms and restaurants that served interstate travelers. The Freedom Rides were used to try to see if these laws were being acted upon. These specific riders had to encounter many dangerous times. The bus ended up having tires slashed and put to flames with a firebomb.
15: “When you say a situation or a person is hopeless, you are slamming the door in the face of God.”
16: “Hope is faith holding out its hand in the dark.”
17: Integration at "Ole Miss" In 1961 James Meredith wanted to transfer to Ole Miss (an all white university) but was rejected. He went to the NAACP to get legal help. Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett declared that James could enroll, but Ole Miss still would not let him enroll. Barnett personally blocked the way to the admissions office. Later after many protests, President Kennedy sent federal marshals to accompany James to the campus. This led to more protest and army troops had to come in to control the situation.
18: “Those who wish to sing always find a song.”
19: Clashes at Birmingham, Alabama The clashes began nonviolently with sit-ins and protest marches, but city officials said they violated a regulation prohibiting parades without a permit. MLK decided to keep on doing the protests and was then arrested. Police used fire hoses on demonstrators and sent trained police dogs out on the protesters. Photos were taken of the situation and most were shocked. The protesters got the sympathy of the nation.
20: “Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.”
21: March on Washington D.C. In August of 1963 over 200,000 people joined in a peaceful and orderly march to call for jobs and freedom. Here, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his most famous, 'I Have A Dream', speech.
22: Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 impacted voting, schools, and jobs. The Justice Department was given the authority to act upon the desegregation of schools and also for voting rights cases. Overall it banned discrimination of anyone based on race, sex, religion, or national origin.
24: Freedom Summer - Mississippi In 1964 about 1,000 volunteers organized a voter registration drive in Mississippi. This lead to an outbreak in violence from the Ku Klux Klan. Civil rights workers went missing, there were mob attacks, some were beaten up and African American homes were burned.
26: Selma March Lead by MLK Jr., and other leaders, a march was started for voting rights from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, Alabama. Many black southerners were being arrested just for standing in line to vote. TV pictures of the attack on the march shocked everyone including President Johnson. He sent the Alabama National Guard down to protect the march.
28: Hope is important because it can make the present moment less difficult to bear. If we believe that tomorrow will be better, we can bear a hardship today.”
29: Voting Rights Act of 1965 Reacting to the Selma March, President Johnson promised a strong new law protecting voting rights. Congress then past the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Because of this law, federal officials had the power to let African Americans vote who were denied by local officials. This also got rid of the literacy tests and other barriers.
31: Nation of Islam The Nation of Islam is a group also known as the Black Muslims, who viewed white society as oppressive and preached black separation. Malcolm X was a famous member of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X was a more radical and militant political leader.
33: The Black Panthers A new militant political party was formed in the fall of 1966, the Black Panthers. The group wanted African Americans to lead their own communities and wanted to do something about the police brutality in the ghettos. This also led to the groups like SNCC to move away from the NAACP.
35: Watts Riots In August of 1965, a riot was started in a Los Angeles neighborhood, Watts. It all started when a young black male was pulled over for being drunk. The man resisted arrest and the officer pulled out his baton and started to swing it. The crowd surrounding became outraged and rioting went on for six days. It took the national guard and all local police to finally take control of the scene. This led to the creation of a special National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders to investigate.
37: MlK's Assassination | In 1968 while standing on a balcony, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and died within an hour. This sparked violent reactions from the African Americans and caused riots. President Johnson ordered that the flags on federal buildings be flown at half mast.
38: Black Power This was the political slogan for those who wished for blacks to be given equal rights as whites. There was varying ranges of people who believed in black power. It ranged from super militant leaders who wished for separatism to others who just wanted to abolish racial oppression.