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AP Bio Summer Assignment

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AP Bio Summer Assignment - Page Text Content

FC: AP Bio Summer Project Tiffany Ho

2: Fermentation: Alcoholic fermentation is an anaerobic process, meaning it is performed without the presence of oxygen. The process is used to make bread, beer, and wine and begins with glucose penetrating the cell. Glucose is then broken down into pyruvic acid, converted into carbon dioxide, ethanol, and energy as metabolic waste products for the cell.

3: Epithelial tissue: A membranous tissue covering surfaces of the body, it is composed of cells packed closely together. Skin is an example of this tissue.

4: Keratin: A major component found in hair, skin, nail, feathers, hooves, horns, teeth, etc., keratin is a fibrous, tough protein found within the cells of the epidermis.

5: Rhizome: A rhizome is defined as a horizontal plant stem that continuously grow underground. Their capability of producing the shoot and root systems allows asexual production and the ability to survive underground. Even if the rhizome was to be separate into pieces, it could still produce a new plant. Examples of plants with underground rhizomes include ginger, asparagus, and bamboo.

6: Xylem: One of two types of vascular tissue in plants, the xylem transports water and minerals from the roots to other parts of the plant and makes transpiration possible. The veins of a celery stick are an example of xylems. The two types of xylems are primary and secondary xylem. Primary xylem is made of procambium during primary growth, found in non-woody plants, and consists of small tracheids and vessels. Consisting of large tracheids and vessels, not present in non-woody plants, and made from vascular cambium during secondary growth is the secondary xylem.

7: Stem-herbaceous: Herbaceous plants are plants with a stem containing little or no woody tissue. The stems are green, bendable, pliant, covered by a thin epidermis, and less sturdy than woody stems. During cold climates, herbaceous plants die down to the soil.

8: Stem-woody: Like the name implies, a woody stem is a plant that uses wood for its stem. They are made of bark and belong to plants that have been growing for more than two years. A tree trunk is the most obvious example of a woody stem.

9: Thorn of a plant: Thorns are characterized as modified branches or stems. These sharp, pointy, hard structures commonly found on plants. They are used as a defense mechanism against predators as well as a sort of replacement for leaves. The thorns prevent the plant from losing a lot of water during the heat.

10: Frond: Referring to the leaf of a fern, frond can also be used to characterize any large, divided leaf. A fern is a flowerless and seedless vascular plant that reproduces by spores.

11: Eukaryote: Eukaryotes like this tree are organisms composed of a cell or cells containing DNA in a nucleus. A majority of life on earth belong to the taxon Eukaryota. Examples include animals, plants, fungi, and protists.

12: Phloem: Pictured above is a tree trunk, which contains phloem. Phloem is the second type of vascular tissue in plants, with the purpose of conducting sugars throughout plants. It is a living tissue with a tubular structure.

13: Autotroph: Also called a producer, an autotroph produces its own food. They take simple substances e.g. light and energy to form nutritional organic substances. Pictured above is a plant, which uses photosynthesis to make food.

14: Endotherm: Birds are warm-blooded animals, therefore they are also endotherms. They have the ability to generate their own heat using sunlight. Despite external temperature, endotherms maintain their internal temperatures.

15: Animal with segmented body: An ant has what is known as a segmented body. Its body has rings around the body marking the beginning and end of each body segment. All of the segments have usually the same structure. Arthropods and annelids have segmented bodies.

16: Fruit- dry with seeds: The two types of fruits are fleshy fruits and dry fruits. Dry fruits can further be divided into dry fruits with seeds that open (dehiscent), such as peanuts, and ones that do not open (indehiscent), such as sunflower seeds.

17: Fruit- fleshy with seeds: Fleshy fruits can be subdivided into those formed from a single flower, such as berries, and those formed from a group, such as strawberries. They may have one seed or many seeds. An apple has many seeds and the white part we eat is the flesh.

18: Radial symmetry: A flower is an example of radial symmetry because it is symmetrical around a central axis. Also included is any animal that can be divided evenly if cut from its center, like a starfish or jellyfish. Organisms with radial symmetry can be found in the Cnidaria and Echinodermata phylums.

19: K-Strategist: Ducks are large animals that produce few at a time, therefore qualify under being a k-strategist. Their population is small, live for a long time, have low mortality, and can only thrive in stable environments.

20: Adaptation of a plant: To help them survive in different areas, plants must have special features. These special features may vary depending on the environment. In the picture shown, this plant has thorns to protect itself from predators. Other defense mechanisms include pricks and spines.

21: Cambium: Inside this tree trunk is cambium, which are the rings of a tree. Cambium is a thin, one-cell layer of tissue located between the xylem and phloem. It is responsible for forming wood and bark cells.

22: Dicot plant: One of the two types of flowering plants, dicotyledons have 4/5 or multiples of 4/5 petals and leaves. The picture shown has 5 petals. Another characteristic of these types of flowers is that they have net-like veins on their leaves. Its seed has 2 cotyledons, thereby given the di- prefix.

23: Monocot plant: The second type of flowering plants, monocotyledons have embryos with one seed leaf. Similar to the picture shown, monocts have 3 or multiples of 3 leaves and petals. Their leaves have veins that are parallel.

24: Arthropod: It's hard to tell from the picture but the small white semicircle with a black border and black streak across is a butterfly. Butterflies have a head, thorax, and abdomen so they are an example of this term.The definition of an arthropod is an organism with an exoskeleton, segmented body, and jointed legs. They are invertebrates, which are animals without a backbone.

25: Flower ovary: The female sex organ of the flower, the ovary is located where the base of the petals and sepals meet. It is at the lower part of the pistil, the female reproductive structure. After the eggs in the ovules are pollinated, the ovules turn into seeds, then the riped ovary becomes a fruit.

26: Pollinator: I had to zoom in an awful lot, but the picture shown is a bee. They collect pollen from the anther of one flower then transfer it to the stigma of another flower. This process enables plants to reproduce. To attract bees, flowers produce nectar, a sweet, juicy substance that the bees carry back to their hive to make honey.

27: Modified leaf of a plant: The thorns and spines on the leaves of a cactus are a defense mechanism against predators that would bite the plant to get water. They also serve as an adaptation to the arid climate that these plants live in. They conserve whatever water they can get.

28: Cuticle layer: The cuticle layer is the protective waxy layer that covers the epidermis. It serves to provide protection against other organisms as well as prevent water loss. The term is also used in anatomy to describe dead skin on nails. A plant cuticle layer and human cuticle have similar purposes.

29: Exoskeleton: Like the name implies, an exoskeleton is an external skeleton. Ants along with many insects have this feature. Humans, however, have an endoskeleton. The purpose of an exoskeleton is to provide support and protection. The covering is made of layers of protein and chitin. It is thickest around the head to protect the brain and thinner in other areas such as the part around the legs.

30: C-4 Plant: Cacti are a type of C4 plant called CAM plants. They undergo photosynthesis at different times of the day to ensure maximum efficiency and minimum water loss. The plant's pores open up at night to allow carbon dioxide to enter. These pores are kept closing during hot and dry weather to conserve water. Due to these characteristics, C4 plants thrive in hot climates.

31: Lepidoptera: An order of insects comprised of butterflies and moths, these creatures are widely known and recognized. They have four or more wings covered with scales.

32: R-strategist: It is a species that reproduces early in their life, and produce large amounts of short-lived offspring. The offspring that are produced need no attention and are usually produced wherever conditions change frequently. R-strategists usually include small species that mature rapidly and has a large population that fluctuates.

33: Ectotherm: Ectotherms are animals who depend on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature. These include cold-blooded animals, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates. They don't require as much food as warm-blooded animals of the same size.

34: Mutualism: This is where individuals of different species have a symbiotic relationship, in which both individuals benefit from the association. The butterfly benefits from the flower by obtaining the food it needs from the flower and the flower benefits by having their pollen transfered.

35: Hermaphrodite: A hermaphrodite has both female and male body parts. There is no female or male. A plant is a hermaphrodite because it has stamens and pistils. Some examples of animals that exhibit this characteristic include earthworms and slugs

36: Angiosperm: An angiosperm is a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel, which is the female reproductive organ of a flower. They are a large group and include herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.

37: Connective tissue: Fibrous in nature, connective tissue have the main purpose of binding other tissues or organs. Other purposes include connecting internal organs, forming bone and walls of blood vessels, and attaching muscle to bone. Hands have connective tissue under the skin.

38: Heartwood: Heartwood is the dense inner part of a tree trunk, having the hardest timber. It usually contains deposits of various materials that frequently give it a darker color.

39: Vascular plant tissue: This type of tissue transports nutrients and water throughout a plant. There are two primary components of vascular tissue and they are the xylem and the phloem. The xylem is used mainly for water, and the phloem is used mainly for nutrients

40: Chitin: The exoskeleton of an animal and the cell walls of fungi contain chitin. It is a fibrous substance made up of complex polysaccharides containing nitrogen.

41: Xerophyte: A xerophyte is a plant that has adapted to survive in an environment where there is no water, such as a desert. Xerophytic plants form adapted shapes and/or internal functions to reduce their water loss and/or store water during long periods of dryness. These type of plants usually have succulent leaves and stems to store water, fewer stomata to reduce water loss, and a deep root system to increase water uptake.

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