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AP Biology Collection

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AP Biology Collection - Page Text Content


1: Dicot Plant and Leaf A dicot plant and leaf is a type of angiosperm (flowering plants). Some characteristics of a dicot is that there are two cotyledons, organs of florals in four and five (or multiples of it), and the leaves spread outwards, instead of parallel. This flower has five petals and leaves that go outwards. Thorn of a Plant A thorn of a plant is an outward extension from the plant, usually sharp.

3: Epithelial Tissue and Keratin | Epithelial tissue is also known as epithelium. It is cells in animals that are together as one or multiple layers. This tissue covers the inside and outside of the body. Skin is an example of epithelial tissue. The two general types of epithelial tissue are simple and stratified. A function of this tissue is to protect the body. | Keratin is a protein that is found in hair, skin, and nails. Keratin does not dissolve in both hot or cold water. Keratin is held together by hydrogen bonding.

4: Basidiomycete | A basidiomycete is part of the fungi kingdom. The phylum of this fungi group is Basidiomyceta. A basidiomycete is known for having spores on its basidium. Basdiomycetes are sexual reproducers and are also heterotrophs. A mushroom is an example of this type of fungi.

5: Ectotherm An ectotherm is an animal that is cold blooded. The lizard picture here is an example of an ectotherm, since reptiles are cold-blooded.

6: A tendril of a plant is an organ that is thin and in a spiral shape. It is found in climbing plants. A tendril attaches itself to another body or goes around the body in order to provide support for itself.

7: A frond is just a large leaf that has a lot of divisions in it. Palms or ferns have fronds. | Frond | Tendril

8: Autotrophs Autotrophs are organisms that have the ability to make their own nutrients with the use of inorganic materials. They use photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. This includes plants and some types of bacteria and protists.

9: Heartwood This is the older part of the tree that is does not live anymore. It does not have the capability to conduct water through it. Its job is to provide the tree with support.

10: Anther and Filament The anther and filament are male reproductive structures in a flower. The filament is a thin organ and the anther is on top of it. The anther produces the pollen in a flower. | Cellulose Cellulose is a polysaccharide containing long chains of glucose. Cellulose is found in the cell walls of plant cells.

11: Eukaryotes Eukaryotes are the types of cells found in single-celled protists and multicellular plants, animals, and fungi. This type of cell contains a nucleus that is covered in a membrane and organelles in the cell which also are membranous.

12: Pollen Pollen is a powder found in the anther. Pollen has the sperm cells. | Pollinator A pollinator is something that moves pollen from one plant to the stigma of another. A bee moves pollen from one flower to another.

13: Flower Ovary A flower ovary is a female reproductive part of a flower. It is the large bottom part of the pistil. A tube called the style is connected to the ovary. The ovary contains the ovules which develop into seeds. Since fruits come from flower ovaries, this ovary has the beginnings of a banana fruit. | Vascular Plant Tissue This type of tissue moves water and other substances in the plant around. It contains a xylem and a phloem.

14: Xylem Xylem is part of the vascular plant tissue system. Xylems have tracheids, vessels, fibres, and parenchyma cells. Xylem have tubes that allow water and other nutrients to move around the plant body, from the roots to the leaves. Xylem can also help in supporting the plant.

15: Cuticle The cuticle layer of a plant is the wax and cutin film on stems and leaves of plants. The cuticle helps in preventing water loss. | Angiosperm An angiosperm is a flowering plant, such as dicots and monocots.

16: R-Strategist An r-strategist is an organism that is small, has many offspring, may not live long, and matures early. These organisms prepare for an environment that changes frequently. Insects are r-strategists because they have multiple offspring. | K-Strategist A K-strategist is an organism that is large, does not produce very many offspring, lives a long time, matures later in life. It has a more constant environment compared to an r-strategist. Mammals are k-strategists.

17: Eubacteria Eubacteria is one of the six kingdoms. These bacterias come in three different shapes (and this shapes classifies them into a phylum). The shapes are spiral shaped, rod shaped, and sphere shaped. Eubacteria have a solid cell wall and no nucleus. The majority of these bacteria reproduce either by budding or binary fission. Some eubacteria may be harmful. The hand has eubacterium on it.

18: Endotherm An endotherm is just an animal that is warm blooded. Dogs are endotherms since they are mammals.

19: Insect An insect is part of the phylum Arthopoda. An insect has a segmented body, legs which are jointed, and exoskeletons. Their bodies have three parts, which include a head, a thorax, and an abdomen. A cockroach is an insect. | Exoskeleton An exoskeleton is the outer skeleton that protects the insides of the animal, such as those found on insects.

20: Phloem Phloem is part of the vascular plant tissue system, along with xylem. Phloem is tissue in the plant. The job of phloem is to move food from leaves to other plant parts. Phloem has sieve tubes, phloem fibres, phloem parenchyma cells, and companion cells.

21: Arthropods Arthropods are creatures that do not have a backbone. Arthropods have segmented bodies, limbs that are jointed, and a shell containing chitin (this shell undergoes changes). This includes spiders and insects (Insecta is a class of Arthropoda). | Lepidoptera Lepidoptera is an order under the class Insecta. Lepidoptera includes moths and butterflies. The majority of lepidopterans have two wing pairs, though some may have one. The lepidoptera order have four stages in thir life. This is the egg, the larvae, pupa, and the adult.

23: Amniotic Egg The amniotic egg is an egg that has an outer shell. This shell protects the egg. In order for the embryo inside the egg to breathe, the shell has little pores for oxygen to enter. The amniotic egg has three membranes. The chorion is involved in the respiratory system of the embryo in birds and reptiles. In mammals, it makes blood vessels and becomes involved with the uterus of the female. The allantois is an organ for the respiratory system while holding the wastes from the fetal (in reptiles and birds). In mammals, the allantois provides some blood vessels as the chorion makes the placenta. The amnion makes a cavity containing fluid inside of it that surrounds the embryo.

24: Niche A niche is the place and role that an organism has in an area with both plants and animals. The niche of a tree is to provide the surrounding organisms with oxygen while performing photosynthesis and taking carbon dioxide out of the air. Trees can be found around the world where there are its survival supplies.

25: Abscisic Acid This is a plant hormone that presses for the plant to become dormant in a plant that lives year-round. When the leaf of the plant begins to wilt, the abscisic acid closes the stomata of the plant. Cambium Cambium is a layer between the xylem and phloem in most vascular plants. The cambium makes new cells and deals with secondary growth.

26: Fruit- Dry with Seed A dry fruit with a seed is a fruit that has a dry mesocarp when the fruit has developed. Some dry fruits split when they are developed while others do not. There are different types of dried fruits, such as nuts. A peanut is an example of a dried fruit.

27: Fruit-Fleshy with Seed A fruit fleshy with seed is a plant ovary that has ripened. The inside of the fruit has mostly soft tissue in it. The mesocarp is still fleshy when the fruit has developed. There are four types of fruits. They are berries, pepos, hesperidiums, pomes, and drupes.

28: Connective Tissue Connective Tissue is a type of tissue that keeps the shape of the body and the organs and gives support and binds. Connective tissue has different types of fibrous tissue, but bone, ligaments, and cartilage. The ear is made up of cartilage, which is why it is pictured here as connective tissue.

29: Meristem Meristem is a tissue in plants that has small cells that continuously divide and the end result is that there are some similar cells and some different cells. The specific tissues and organs come from the cells that are different. | Parenchyma Cells These cells are cells in plants that are not specific in their structure. As a result that can end up in different functions. The cells may be close together. The tissue the cells make are sometimes called the fundamental tissue.

30: Biological Magnification Biological magnification is when there is an increase of a substance that occurs in a food chain. For example, pesticides used to protect fruits and crops can increase overtime in the food chain as organisms eat food that are treated with pesticides or move through the Earth's cycles.

31: Gastropods Gastropods are part of the class Gastropoda, in the phylum Mollusca. This class includes snails and slugs. There are gastropods that live in water areas and those that live on land. Some gastropods are hermaphrodites. There are a variety of different shells that the gastropods have (although some do not). Gastropods are heterotrophic creatures.

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