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Ap Euro Unit 2

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FC: Protestant Reformation | By Jeung Park 3rd Period Unit 2 Project

1: Early Reformers | Jan Hus (1369 - 1415), a philosopher and priest, along with Wycliffe was one of the earliest reformers. He ended up being burned at the stake for heresy against Catholic doctrines, his followers, Hussites, after his death still fought for Religious cause. | John Wycliffe (c1320 - 1384) was an English theologian, and an early reformer that heavily influenced the reformation. His followers, called Lollards were considered to be somewhat rebellious and preached anticlerical policies in the government.

2: Political Causes of the Reformation | The reformation, especially in England, was for a political cause. Henry VIII lacked a male heir to the throne and could not get a divorce with Catherine of Aragon under the Catholic Church. So, he reformed the church to create what is known as the Anglican church, in order to get a divorce. The pope's power in the government being questioned with the humanistic ideas also caused the reformation

3: Religious Causes of the Reformation | Martin Luther,a monk from Germany, played a key role in causing the protestant reformation. As he saw indulgences, a way for people to receive remission for sins, he challenged the church and posted a list of 95 complaints to the Catholic church known as the "95 Theses" | Members in the Catholic church started to focus on becoming wealthy and extensively sold indulgences, to be reformers became unhappy with this idea and the idea of reforming to the true ideas of the bible started to appear. The clergy were non educated and people started to question the Catholic church's power.

4: Lutheranism | Lutheranism is a protestant sect of the Catholic church, that is one of the most successful and recognized protestant religions. Based on the teachings of Martin Luther, 1483 - 1546, Lutheranism is distinguished from the Catholic church in that it only has 2 sacraments, does not have indulgences, believes that faith alone can give one salvation, believes that the clergy could be allowed to marry, and that non clergy could have access to the bible to create a personal relationship with god. | The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 gave tolerance to Lutheranism, allowing the prince of each state to decide if Lutheranism would be practiced or not.

5: Calvinism | Calvinism along with Lutheranism was a very popular protestant religion. During the second half of the sixteenth century it was considered to be the dominant protestant force. Calvinism was founded by John Calvin (1509-1564), an influential French protestant pastor, influenced by teachings of Ulrich Zwingli, a reformation leader from Switzerland. Calvinism was different from Catholicism in that it stressed the doctrine of predestination showing that God has foreordained who will receive salvation and who will not.

6: Switzerland | England | William Tyndale(1492-1536) was an early Protestant Reformer from England. Tyndale translated the Bible into English, which had him executed Along with Tyndale, protestantism was brought by King Henry VIII of England who created the Anglican church. Henry parted from the Catholic Church, to get a divorce with Catherine of Aragon in order to get a male heir to the throne. Henry in his reign created the Act of Succession that declared Anne Boleyn's children legitimate and the Act of Supremacy, declaring that he is the only supreme head of the church. Thomas More, a bishop and adviser was executed for not accepting the act. | Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) a humanistically educated person was the leader of the Swiss reformation. Switzerland was made up of a collection of 13 autonomous states called cantons, and each state had the option of being protestant or Catholic. | Although Henry VIII was not able to get a living male heir, Catherine of Aragon gave birth to Mary Tudor. Mary ended up as Queen, and tried to reform the church back to Catholicism, but failed. Her half sister, Elizabeth I, being a protestant, successfully converted England back to Protestantism.

7: France | Germany | John Calvin came from France. France at the time was not completely protestant nor completely Catholic. At the time, France was ruled by King Francis I who was tolerant, following humanist ideas. This changed with the idea that France's unity will be affected if it was not united by religion. Protestants were then heavily persecuted. Calvinists were later granted rights with the Edict of Nantes issued by King Henry IV of France. | The reformation first broke out in the free imperial cities of Germany. Martin Luther in response to the Catholic Church excessively collecting indulgences posted his 95 Theses which sparked the reformation. At first Lutheranism was not tolerated, Luther was excommunicated and told to recant by the Catholic Church in the Edict and Diet of Worms. Later Lutheranism was given tolerance in the Peace of Augsburg in 1555.

8: Italy | Spain | Protestantism spread to Italy but was not tolerated nor as successful as it was in other parts of Europe. Italy remained predominately Catholic. This was because the papacy was located on the border of Italy. Protestantism was introduced to Europe through trade, and the fact that it was ruled by foreign powers and was accepted by few because of the popular idea of humanism at the time. | Spain was predominately Catholic. Spain did not tolerate Protestantism, as shown by the major persecutions where Spain executed, tortured, imprisoned, and deported Protestants and non catholics.

9: Radical Reformation | Anabaptists | Antitrinitarians | The anabaptsits were radical protestants that were distinguished in that they only believed in adult baptism, thinking that as a child you were not knowledgeable of scripture. At first they gained popularity but were persecuted and gotten rid of completely by Roman Catholics and other Protestants. | Antitrinitarians were heavily persecuted for their especially radical beliefs. Their name comes from the fact that they do not believe in trinity, the idea of God's eternity. Their radical ideas included the challenging of the holy spirit and Jesus Christ. They focused on logic and challenged the Calvinist doctrine of predestination

10: Consequences of the Reformation | Social | Political | Religious | Protestants opposed the anti-woman literature. Women's rights saw improvement: new laws were created that gave them greater security and protection. Many humanist protestants helped to form educational reforms throughout Europe, and family was placed at the center of life. | The Protestant Reformation sparked the Age of religious wars, during the late sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries such as the Thirty Years' War. The church completely lost power in the state allowing the state to rule over itself independently without answering to a pope. | The protestant reformation gave tolerance and created many new protestant religions. The reformation caused the Catholic Church to reform their ideas in the Catholic Reformation, even then they were no longer the church of Europe.

11: The Catholic reformation was an attempt to suppress the protestant reformation. In the counter reformation the sale of indulgences were prohibited, Ignatius of Loyala (1491-1556) created the society of Jesus, that grew from 10 members to 15,000 that went out throughout the | Catholic Reformation | world with missions. A series of orders were created, beginning with the Theatines that prepared and groomed the leaders at high levels of the church hierarchy. Following the Theatines were the Capuchins. The Somaschi and the Barnabites worked to repair moral and physical damage done to Italy. Oratorians, made up of clerics focused on literature and music. The Ursulines order established religious education for women of all age and social class. In response to the success of the protestants, the Council of Trent was called by Pope Paul III which reasserted the church doctrine. Desiderius Erasmus, a Dutch Humanist believed in reforming the church from within.

12: Religious Wars | The protestant reformation caused a series of religious wars, including the French Wars of Religion, Anglo-Spanish War, and most importantly the Thirty Years' War. The Thirty Years' War was one of the deadliest religious wars in history. It was caused by Calvinists wanting inclusion in the Peace of Augsburg, the persecution of Protestantism by Ferdinand II, and protestants continuing to seize Catholics. The out come was the Treaty of Westphalia, which granted equal rights to Calvinists, and German and Swiss states were recognized as independent.

13: Works Cited | Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

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