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Bio Photo Journal

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BC: "Intellectually intriguing," - TIME Magazine "Simply astounding, insight and analysis are spot on," - Scientific American Magazine

FC: Kireet Koganti 5th Block May 22, 2012 | My Photo Journal Project

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2: Kingdom Plantae | Plants are eukaryotic autotrophs that are photosynthetic. They are multicellular. Their cell wall is composed of cellulose. They are classified into 4 groups: seedless nonvascular, seedless vascular, gymnosperms (naked seed vascular), and Angiosperms (coated seed vascular). All Plants are non - mobile and primary producers.

3: Plantae Mind Map | Plants make sugar in photosynthesis | Plants have vascular bundles or they are nonvascular | Plants are either monocots or dicots | Plants get their energy from the sun | This fan reminds me of the frond fans, and spores are located on leaves/fronds.

4: P.Pterophyta - Seedless Vascular plant | This plant was found amongst a garden. Many ants and other land insects live around these plants. The role of this organism is to indicate the quality of the soil ( moisture, etc.) ; because the plant is taller here, there is a better environment for organisms to grow.

5: P. Angiospermata - Class Dicot Rosebush | This organism was found amongst a wide variety of flowering plants. This is a dicot because its veins are netted. There were some worms around the area as well as smaller insects. The role of this organism is to attract pollinating bees.

6: P.Angiospermata - Class Monocot Plant | This simple flowering plant with parallel veins is clearly a monocot. This plant was found amongst shrubs. There were some bees around this area. The role of this organism is to attract bees with its bright colored flowers to allow pollination to occur.

7: This organism was found in isolation from other trees. Ants and flying insects were found near here. The role of this organism is to provide shelter for other animals such as squirrels, and using its cones to pollinate. When a male and female cone germinate, seeds are formed. | P. Coniferophyta - Conifers Pine Trees

8: P. Bryophyta - Moss | This moss was found on the bark of a tree, but it can also be found on the ground. Birds and insects such as termites inhabit the tree that moss is on. Mosses take part in nitrogen fixation, and allow the plant (in this case the tree) to assimilate the compounds it broke down, replenishing the plant.

10: Kingdom Protista | Protists are eukaryotic, some single celled and others multicellular. Most protists are aquatic. Protists are classified by what kingdom they resemble; plant-like (algae), animal-like (protozoans), and fungus-like (slime molds). Algae are photosynthetic, and are autotrophs. Protozoans are unicellular heterotrophs, and are classified by their method of movement. Slime molds are decomposers that can use waterproof spores to reproduce.

11: Protista Mind Map | protozoans are grouped by movement | Most protists are aquatic | This jelly reminds me of a pseudopod | Some protists are colonial, like the Spanish were | This cartoon illustrates asexual reproduction

12: Algae | Algae can be found on ponds or bodies of water, mainly freshwater areas. Green Algae live close to the surface of some sponges, for example, the breadcrumb sponge. The algae is thus protected from predators; the sponge is provided with oxygen and sugars which can account for 50 to 80% of sponge growth in some species. Algae are photosynthetic, meaning they are primary producers. Algae produce oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the water.

13: Kingom Protista, Class Protozoan - Amoeba | Amoebas are found in soil, freshwater, and saltwater. They have no definite body shape and continually change form as they move using their pseudopods. Amoeba have various relationships, the Entamoeba coli exhibit parasitism because they can enter the human gastrointestinal tract, infecting the host, and may spread pathogens that it can carry. They come into contact with many organisms, because protozoans inhabit many areas. Being able to live in water, they live near protists such as algae and slime molds, and come into contact with many animals.

14: Kingdom Fungi | Fungi are eukaryotic organisms with cell walls made of chitin. Fungi are heterotrophs, and are considered decomposers or parasites, depending if their prey is dead or alive. Fungi perform extracellular digestion, a process that allows them to digest a food source with enzymes first before absorbing it into the fungal body.Fungi can reproduce by spores , asexually, or budding.

15: Fungi Mind Map | Their cell wall is made of chitin, which sounds like 'kite'. | Acne reminds me of spores for plants, they look similar. | This reminds me of extracellular digestion | This lava lamp reminds me of yeast budding. | Recycling reminds me of decomposers in nature

16: P. Basidiomycota - Baby Bella Mushrooms | A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. They can be found anywhere above ground, whether it be grass or dirt. Mushrooms live amongst ants, beetles, earthworms, and other organisms above or below the ground near the decaying organism. Most mushrooms are saphrophytes, meaning that they live off of dead matter, but some can be parasites, taking the nutrients from a plant.

17: P.Lycopoda - Lichen | This lichen was found on the bark of a tree. Along with lichen, this tree has moss, and on the tree, insects such as ants and animals slike squirrels inhabit it.A lichen is a symbiosis of a fungus and a photosynthetic organism. Lichen provide food, shelter, and nesting areas for various forms of wildlife. Lichen function as decomposers.

18: P.Basidiomycota - Shelf Fungus | This shelf fungus was found growing on the branches of a dying tree. Because this tree is dying, there are many insects like ants and worms around the tree as well as inside the tree. The niche of shelf fungus is that once it inhabits a tree, it destroys the lumber. This opens up new habitats to organisms like various birds.

20: Kingdom Animalia | All animal cells are eukaryotic, containing membrane bound organelles such as a mitochondria. Animals are heterotrophs, and are multicellular. They contain a cell nucleus, but do not contain a cell wall. They are all mobile. Animals are described according to their arrangement of body parts or symmetry.

21: Animalia Mind Map | This little girl reminds of heterotrophs because she is gathering food, which mammalia does as heterotrophs. | This photo reminds me that all organisms are motile sometime in their life. | The mirror reminds me of the symmetry animals are classified by. | This cartoon reminds me that animals are also grouped as invertebrates or verterates based on the presence of a backbone. | This image reminds me that multicellular organisms are together, instead of independent, and all animals are multicellular.

22: P. Arthropoda, Class Arachnida | Spiders can be found on every continent except Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exception of air and sea colonization. Spiders building webs on plants is an example of commensalism. The plant is not affected, but the spider benefits because insects are attracted to the plant where they become ensnared in the spider's web. Spiders help by preying on dangerous insects, this can be beneficial especially in homes. Spiders are secondary consumers because they eat small insects that feed off of vegetation.

23: P. Arthropoda, Class Crustacea- Red Clawed Crab | Crabs can be found in oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. Crabs often form commensalistic symbiotic relationships with anemones in tropical waters, for the purposes of protection from predation. For instance the Anemone crab, Neopetrolisthes oshimai, which is a filter feeding Porcelain crab, lives and captures its food from within the tentacles of giant anemones. Crabs are omnivores, feeding primarily on algae, and taking any other food including mollusks, worms, other crustaceans, fungi, bacteria and detritus.

24: P. Cnidaria , Class Scyphozoa - Purple Striped Jelly | Jellyfish live in saltwater and freshwater, and inhabit every ocean in the world. Saltwater jellyfish tend to be more dangerous. Some jellyfish have developed symbiotic relationships with algae. The algae, which require sunlight for photosynthesis produce sugar in return for the jelly's sunlight. This is a mutualistic relationship. Jellyfish live around many sea organisms, primarily fish. Jellyfish are secondary consumers. They feed on small marine animals, while the marines eat the phytoplankton.

25: P. Porifera - Sea Sponge | Sponges are sessile during most of their lifetime, meaning they are immobile.Sponges are worldwide in their distribution, and range from waters of the polar regions to the tropical regions. Sponges are most abundant in both numbers of individuals and species in warmer waters. The decorator crab and the sponge have a mutualistic relationship, the crab snips bits of sponges to cover its shell as camouflage. The sponges continue to filter feed as they normally would attached to coral or any other surface. The crab can also benefit by toxins that may be inherent to the species of sponge it chooses, as well as feeding on the algae growing around the sponge. The sponge is exposed to many feeding opportunities based on the crab’s movements. Sponges are primary and secondary consumers because they eat small organisms and algae.

26: P.Chordata, Class Aves Macaw | Macaws are typically found in South and Central America in forests, especially rainforests, but others prefer woodland or savannah-like habitats. This bird is in a commensalistic relationship with a tree because the tree provides the bird a home, but the tree does not benefit from this relationship. Macaws disperse seeds and nuts throughout their territories, allowing seeds to germinate and grow throughout the forest.

27: P. Echinodermata , Class Asteroidea - Starfish | Starfish are found in saltwater, living in every ocean on the planet.They are symbiotic with sea turtles. Often, you will see starfish on sea turtles' backs; the sea turtle provides food, while the starfish are brightly colored and scare off predators. This is a mutualistic relationship. Starfish live alongside all ocean organisms, such as fish, shrimp, sharks, etc. Starfish are predators on shellfish such as clams and oysters, making them secondary or even tertiary consumers.

28: P. Chordata, Class Reptilia - Pond Turtle | These turtles are typically found in smaller bodies of water such as lakes or rivers, because they are very small compared to sea tortoises. These turtles usually live in freshwater. The symbiotic relationship between aquatic turtles is commensalism because the algae benefits by living on the turtle but the turtle is not affected by the algae. These organisms are secondary and tertiary consumers because they eat earthworms, guppies, and other fish. Young Pond Turtles are carnivorous, while older ones are omnivores. These turtles live around many organisms such as algae, protozoans, insects, and fish.

29: P. Chordata, Class Amphibia - Solomon Island Leaf Frog | Soloman Island leaf frogs are a medium sized terrestrial frog found in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, rural gardens, urban areas, and heavily degraded former forests. They are in a commensalistic relationship with leaves, because they camouflage in leaves, and the leaves serve as a home, but they don't benefit. They can be classified as either secondary or tertiary consumers because they pounce quickly on any prey animals that happen to wander within their reach – including their own species.

30: Phylum Chordata, Class Chondrichthyes - Blacktip Reef Shark | This species prefers shallow, inshore waters , and abundantly inhabit the tropical coral reefs of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Most blacktip reef sharks are found over reef ledges and sandy flats, though they have also been known to enter brackish and freshwater environments. These sharks share the ocean with other sharks, fish, turtles, crabs, whales, and other organisms. They are in a competitive relationship with the grey reef shark and the whitetip reef shark, fighting for food. These sharks are classified as top level consumers, whether tertiary or quaternary, eating other fishes, or even squids, rays, or other sharks.

31: Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia - Monkey | Most species of monkeys are native to Africa, South America, and Asia, and are usually found in rainforests and jungles. An example of a symbiotic relationship is between monkeys and goats or other hairy mammals. Monkeys pick the ticks from the hair of these hairy mammals. The mammal gets rid of the ticks, and the monkey gets food, this is mutualism. Most monkeys are typically primary consumers, meaning they obtain their food supply from vegetation, such as fruit trees.

32: P. Chordata, Class Osteichthyes - Coral Grouper | Native to the western Pacific Ocean, the Coral Grouper's natural habitat includes open seas and coral reefs. This organism lives with many diverse fish within the coral reef. Coral groups share a commensalistic relationship with the coral reefs because the coral provides shelter for the fish, while the fish does not provide anything in return. Coral groupers are piscivorous, meaning fish eating; juveniles mostly eat crustaceans, especially prawns, and adults feed upon a variety of reef fish, particularly damselfish. This can group them as tertiary or even quaternary consumers depending on the type of fish they prey on.

33: P. Nematoda - Roundworm | Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. Roundworms exhibit a parasitic relationship because they live inside the host, taking the nutrients and food that would normally be given to the body of the host. These parasites can live in most mammals. Ringworms cannot be classified as a consumer because they thrive off of the diverse foods and nutrients of the host they inhabit.

34: P. Arthropoda, Class Chilopoda - Centipede | Centipedes are found in an array of terrestrial habitats from tropical rainforests to deserts. Accordingly, they are found in soil and leaf litter, under stones and dead wood, and inside logs. Centipedes exhibit predation on earthworms, reptiles, mammals, and bats, because they prey on these organisms. If they are large Scolopendromorphs, they are able to eat these larger organisms along with reptiles. Because of these extremely varied diet, centipedes can be a higher level consumer (i.e. tertiary or quaternary) because of their capability to eat mammals and reptiles, which can already be secondary or tertiary consumers.

35: P. Mollusca , Class Gastropoda - Land Snail | Many of these operculate land snails live in habitats or microhabitats that are sometimes (or often) damp or wet, such as for example in moss. An example of a commensalistic relationship is shown between hermit crabs and snail shells. When a snail dies, their shells remain behind, allowing hermit crabs to take these shells as they grow. The crabs benefit, but the snail is dead, so it is not affected. Snails are usually herbivorous, making them primary consumers.

36: P. Arthropoda - Class Insecta Ants | This organism was found on an anthill on the ground in a forest. Ants live symbiotically with fungi and bacteria. Ants chew grass beds, which allows fungus to grow, then the ants eat the fungus, and the bacteria helps by creating antiobiotics to counter predator fungi from destroying the ants' symbiotic fungi food supply. The niche of an ant is to protect its nest and the queen by providing food to the queen.

37: P. Annelida , Class Oligochaeta - Earthworm | Earthworms are commonly found living in soil, in many warm environments where soil is fertile and plant diversity is common. An example of a mutualistic relationship between the earthworm and beneficial bacteria. As a soil processor, the earthworm ingests the bacteria, which breed in the perfect conditions of the gut.Bacteria, kungi, and pathogens are destroyed by this bacteria. Earthworms function as decomposers, making the soil conditions right for plants to grow in.

38: P. Mollusca, Class Cephalopoda - Squid | Squid are found all over the world. They can live both in shallow water close to shore, and in the open ocean at great depth.An example of mutualism is between squid and symbiotic bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, which produce light and are housed in a light organ. The light produced by the bacteria is used by the squid to camouflage themselves, and the bacteria gets a place to live. Squids are secondary consumers, which eat crustaceans, fish, and other squid.

39: P. Platyhelminthes, Class Trematoda - Bladderworm | Bladder worms are types of flukes, and are larvae of the pork tapeworm. They can be found and dispersed anywhere, because they can come into a human through contaminated hands which get on food. They live symbiotically with their host organism, typically pigs. The bladder worm resides in the host, using it as an intermediate host to hatch the bladder worm, the larvae. Nutrients are taken from the host to provide to the larvae, allowing it to grow and eventually become a large problem. They are a type of fluke, and cannot be classified as a consumer, because they are a parasite, obtaining food from their host.

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