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S: The Muscular System

FC: The Muscular System | By Ryan Mashburn | FINAL ASSESSMENT

1: There are many different types of muscles. | One of these types is smooth muscle. | Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. | It is divided in two sub-groups; the singleunit and the multiunit. | Another type is skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue existing under the control of the somatic nervous system

2: Cardiac Muscle | is a type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium.

3: Sarcomere and its function | A sarcomere is a basic unit of muscle's cross striated myofibril. Sarcomeres are multi-protein complexes composed of three different filament systems | The thick filament is composed of myosin protein. | The thin filaments are assembled by actin monomers | Nebulin and titin give it stability and structure

4: The role of ATP in muscle contraction | ATP doesn't convert sugar into energy. ATP is the "storage molecule" from energy in the blood. As the body breaks down glucose, it produces ATP and energy is released. Then ATP is used to bring energy to the actin protein to make it move.

5: The actin and myosin sliding theory | This theory explains that the thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortening the entire length of the sarcomere. In order to slide past one another, the myosin heads will interact with the actin filaments and, using ATP, bend to pull pass the actin | There are six steps of this sliding process. | 1.The influx of calcium, triggering the exposure of binding sites on actin | 2.The binding of myosin to actin. | 3.The power stroke of the cross bridge that causes the sliding of the thin filaments | 4.The binding of ATP to cross the bridge, which results in the cross bridge disconnecting from actin. | 5.The hydrolysis of ATP, which leads to the re-energizing and repositioning of the cross bridge | 6.The transport of calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic recticulum

6: The integumentary system | the integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages. | The integumentary consist of three layers. The epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis | all of these layers have certain roles

7: The top Layer(the epidermis) | The epidermis is made up of epithelial cells and its main job is protection, absorption of nutrients, and homeostasis. | in structure, it consist of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. | The epidermis contains three different types of cells; the most common are: squamous cells, which are flat, scaly cells on the top of the skin, basal cells, which are round cells, and melanocytes

8: The Middle Layer of the Skin | The Dermis | The dermis is the middle layer of the skin, composed of loose collective tissues such as collagen and elastin. | Theses layers serve to give elasticity to the integument. | The dermal layer provides a site for endings of blood vessels and nerves | The dermis is bundled and wovenly patterned

9: The hypodermis(aka subdermis, subcutaneous layer) | Although this technically isn't part of the integumentary system, the hypodermis layer is directly under the dermis. It is mainly composed of connective or adipose tissue(fatty tissue).

10: The functions of the Integumentary system | The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis | All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the functions of the body.

11: The Cardiovascular System | Otherwise known has the circulatory system, the cardiovascular system is an organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis.

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