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S: Punctuation Education! By: Marlie Bloome

FC: Punctuation Education! By:Marlie Bloome

2: Apostrophe 1.)To form the possessive case of a singular noun, add an apostrophe and an s. Do not use apostrophes to form the possessives of the personal pronouns. 2.) To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in s, add only the apostrophe. Contractions . 3.) Use an apostrophe to show where letters have been omitted in a contraction. . 4.) Use an apostrophe and s to form the plural of letters, numbers, and signs, and for words referred to as words. N. B. such letters, numbers, signs, or words as words would be in italics | Examples: 1.) This is Joan's jacket. 2.) The girls' dresses 3.) won't 4.) the '96 Olympics

3: Brackets: 1.) Brackets are used to indicate a misspelling or other misuse of language in the original quote.. 2.) Brackets are also used in dictionaries, glossaries, and word lists to show word origins and etymologies.. 3.) Brackets may be used to show parenthetical information for material already inside parentheses. | Examples: 1.) "Mi dere Jo I hope u r write [sic] well." 2.) Brackets [L.] 3.) (Charles Dickens [1812-1870] had been trained as a stenographer.)

4: Colon 1.) Use a colon before a list of items, especially after expressions like as follows or the following. A colon says "note what follows." A colon suggests equality. 2.) Use a colon before a statement that expands or clarifies a preceding statement. 3.) Use a colon in conventional situations. between hours and minutes in time after the salutation of a business letter | Examples: 1.) John has all the ingredients: minced clams, milk, potatoes, and onions. 2.) Grapes are not squeezed: The pulp is pressed. 3.) John 3:16

5: Comma Multiple items (to separate or join) 1.) Use commas to separate items in a series. 2.) Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives that come before a noun. 3.) Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet when it joins independent clauses. | Examples: 1.) The street was filled with angry protesters, shouting spectators, and police. 2.) Did you read about Macomber's short, happy life? 3.) We washed the dog, and then we cleaned up the mess that he made.

6: Comma Parenthetical and interrupter words 4.) Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence. a.) non-essential participle phrases or subordinate clauses b.) non-essential appositives or appositive phrases c.) words used in direct address parenthetical expressions 5.) Use a comma after yes, no, or any mild exclamation such as well or why at the beginning of a sentence. 6.) Use a comma after an introductory phrase or clause a.) always follow an introductory participle phrase with a comma b.) always follow an introductory adverb clause with a comma c.) put a comma after multiple prepositional phrases that begin a sentence; do not put a comma after a single introductory prepositional phrase unless to omit the comma would cause confusion . | Examples: 4) Write me in care of Post Office Box 203, Shelton, Connecticut 06484. . 5.) Yes, we have no bananas. 6..) Under the pile of clothes, we found his wallet

7: Comma: Conventional situations 7.) Use commas in certain conventional situations a.) items in dates and addresses b.) after the salutation of a friendly letter and the closing of any letter. 8.) Do not use unnecessary commas. | Examples: 7..)We will meet Friday, July 15. 8.) Incorrect: The bright red, car was a Corvette Correct: The bright red car was a Corvette.

8: Dash 1.) Use a dash to indicate an abrupt break in thought or speech. 2.) Use a hyphen when adding a prefix to some words. | Examples: 1.) This is the end of our sentence — or so we thought. 2.) Cara is his ex-girlfriend.

9: Ellipses 1.) The ellipsis is three periods in a row. It signifies that words or figures are missing. 2.) In mathematics an ellipsis shows that numbers have been left out. This is usually used in decimals, series, and matrices. | Examples: 1.) Ellipsis in middle: "I'm afraid of children my own age. They kill each other. Did it always use to be that way? My uncle says no...My uncle says his grandfather remembered when children didn't kill each other. But that was a long time ago when they had things different. They believed in responsibility, my uncle says." 2.) 3.14159...

10: Exclamation Point 1.) An exclamation is followed by an exclamation point. 2.) An imperative sentence is followed by either a period or an exclamation point | Examples: 1.) The rain did not stop for four days! 2.) No, I don't want to go there!

11: Hyphen 1.) Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line. Divide words only between syllables, and make sure at least two syllables end up on the second line. 2.) Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine. 3.) Use a hyphen with fractions used as adjectives. 4.) Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex-, self-, and all- and with the suffix -elect. | Examples: 1.) sup- port 2.) Two hundred fifty-six 3.) He is a well-respected man. 4.) ex-wife

12: Parentheses 1.) Use parentheses to enclose material added to a sentence but not of major importance. (An understated interruption) Place a space outside the parentheses (before the first unless it begins a sentence and after the last unless it ends a sentence), but do not place a space after the opening parenthesis or before the closing parenthesis. | Examples: 1.) He had to go through the usual process to get his bus driver's license (police and FBI check, reference check, motor vehicle check, written exam, mechanical test, and driving test).

13: Period 1.) A statement is followed by a period. 2.) An imperative sentence is followed by either a period or an exclamation point. 3.) An abbreviation is followed by a period. | Examples: 1.) His name is Joshua. 2.) Please be sure to tell her I am coming. 3.) Please make the check out to Roland N. Payne, D.D.S.

14: Question Mark 1.) A question is followed by a question mark. | Examples: 1.) What is your name?

15: Quotation Marks 1.) Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation-a person's exact words. How to punctuate and capitalize a quotation 2.) A direct quotation begins with a capital letter. 3.) When a quoted sentence is divided into two parts by an interrupting expression such as he said or Mother asked, the second part begins [read that as continues] with a small letter. (Split quotation) 4.) A direct quotation is set off from the rest of the sentence by commas or by a question mark or exclamation point. | Examples: 1.) Macbeth said, "All our yesterdays have lighted fools the way to dusty death." 2.) "All our yesterdays have lighted fools the way to dusty death." 3.) "Ned," he requested, "please take this to Mr. Green." 4.) She wrote, "I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister."

16: Quotation Marks 15) A period or comma following a quotation should be placed inside the closing quotation marks. 6.) A question mark or an exclamation point should be placed inside the closing quotation marks if the quotation is a question or exclamation. Otherwise it should be placed outside. 7.) When you write dialogue (two or more persons having a conversation), begin a new paragraph each time you change speakers. | Examples: 5.) "All our yesterdays have lighted fools the way to dusty death." 6.) "Look at that!" he exclaimed. "Did you see that?" 7.) "Hello, Mary," Jeffrey stammered. "Hi, Jeffrey, how are you?" "Uh, fine. What have you been doing lately?"

17: Quotation Marks 8) When a quotation consists of several sentences, put quotation marks only at the beginning and at the end of the whole quotation, not around each sentence in the quotation. 9.) Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. Conventional uses 10.) Use quotation marks to enclose titles of chapters, articles, short stories, poems, songs, and other parts of books or magazines. (Minor works or parts of works | Examples: 8.) There were epochs in the history of the humanity in which the writer was a sacred person. He wrote the sacred books, universal books, the codes, the epic, the oracles. Sentences inscribed on the walls of the crypts; examples in the portals of the temples. But in those times the writer was not an individual alone; he was the people.” 9.) Helen said,"She asked us,'How many of you have read "The Lady of Shalott"?' I had." 10.) She asked, "How many of you have read 'The Lady of Shalott'?"

18: Semi-Colon 1.) Use a semicolon between independent clauses in a sentence if they are not joined by and, but, or, nor, for, yet. 2.) Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by such words as for example, for instance, that is, besides, accordingly, moreover, nevertheless, furthermore, otherwise, therefore, however, consequently, instead, hence. (In other words, between independent clauses joined by transitional words that are not conjunctions.) | Examples: 1.) I like you; John likes you, too. 2.) I am crucified with Christ; nevertheless, I live.--Galatians 2:20.

19: Semi-colon 3.) Use a semicolon to separate the independent clauses of a compound sentence if either of the independent clauses contains potentially confusing commas. 4.) Use semicolons instead of commas to separate a list of items which themselves contain commas. | Examples: 3.) He wears shoes with kites, a leather fringe; but I prefer penny loafers myself. 4.) We visited Erie, Pennsylvania; Buffalo, New York; and Toronto, Ontario.

20: Resources: Punctuation Contens". English Plus. 5/19/10 . "Punctuation Rules". St. Albans School. 5/19/10 .

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