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Cells - Page Text Content

FC: All about Cells | By: Adam Poschner | Everything you need to know about cells!

1: Table of Contents | History of cells 2-3 Different cells 4-6 Different cellular structures 7-23 and organelles How organelles work 24-25 together within the cell Different types of cells 26-31 Reference 32

2: History of Cells | (1665) Robert Hooke was the first person to discover cells. He had microscopy as a hobby, and one day he took a slice of a cork and put it under the microscope. Since corks are made from oak trees they are made from cells. Hooke observed many tiny compartments and called them cells | Robert Hooke

3: (1680) Anton van Leeuwenhoek furthered Hook's discovery by observed living cells; called some 'animalcules'. (1838) Matthias Schleiden viewed plants under a microscope and figured out that plants have cells. (1839) Theodor Schwann viewed animal parts under a microscope. Discovered that animal parts are made of cells. (1855) Rudolph Virchow stated that all living cells come only from other living cells

4: Animal Cell | The animal cell is a eukaryotic cell. It is surrounded by a plasma membrane, which forms a selective barrier allowing nutrients to enter and waste products to leave. There is only one nucleus and it contains all the genetic information necessary for cell growth and reproduction

5: Plant Cell | A plant cell is also a eukaryotic cell. Some differences in the plant cell is they have a cell wall, vacuoles and chloroplasts

6: Bacterial Cell | Bacteria have a very simple internal structure, and no membrane-bound organelles. The parts the bacterial cell has is nucleoid, ribosomes, storage granules and endospore.

7: Different Cellular structures and organelles | There are many structures and organelles: mitochondria, nucleus, DNA, chromosome, cell membrane, cell wall, flagella, cilia, cjloroplast, centrioles, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, lysosomes, golgi apparatus, ribosomes

8: Cellular Structures and organelles | Mitochondria provide the energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract - in short, they are the power centers of the cell

9: Nucleus- is the most obvious organelle in any eukaryotic cell. The prominent structure in the nucleus is the nucleolus. The nucleolus produces ribosomes, which move out of the nucleus to positions on the rough endoplasmic reticulum where they are critical in protein synthesis. | Nucleus

10: DNA- which stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid is an very long macromolecule which forms the main component of chromosomes (a basic component in the genetic determination and development of all known life forms).

11: Chromosome- A chromosome is what carries the hereditary information of an organism and is made up of densely packed coiled up Chromatin.

12: Cell wall- Most commonly found in plant cells. Extracellular structure surrounding plasma membrane. Primary cell wall is extremely elastic. Secondary cell wall forms around primary cell wall after growth is complete

13: Cell membrane- acts like a protective outer covering for the cell Cell membrane anchors the cytoskeleton and gives shape to the cell.

14: Flagella and Celia- Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell. For single cells, such as sperm, this enables them to swim. For cells anchored in a tissue, like the epithelial cells lining our air passages, this moves liquid over the surface of the cell.

15: Chloroplasts- are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy. Chloroplasts makes plants green.

16: Centrioles- are a pair of structures composed of microtubules. The primary function of centrioles is to generate the cell's cytoskeleton.

17: Endoplasmic reticulum- is a system of membrane-enclosed channels which ramifies throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. It comes in two types--smooth and rough. The difference is that rough ER has ribosomes all over its outer surface.

18: Vacuoles- are small, varied membrane "bubbles" found throughout the cytoplasm. Vacuole is a very general term, and there are quite a few different kinds of vacuoles, including food vacuoles, contractile vacuoles, and the very specialized central vacuoles found only in plant cells.

19: Cytoskeleton- are composed of microtubules,supports cell and provides shapeaids movement of materials in and out of cells

20: Cytoplasm- is the fluid substance that fills the interior of the cell. Cytoplasm is often described as a "rich, organic soup." This analogy seeks to honor the complexity of cytoplasm, which is mostly water, but contains a large assortment of molecular and structural components

21: Lysosomes- Digestive 'plant' for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. It transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal,varies in shape depending on process being carried out ,cell breaks down if lysosome explodes.

22: Golgi apparatus- is a protein sometimes called "packaging plant". Found near the nucleus and is composed of numerous layers forming a sac.

23: Ribosome- are an essential component for any living cell. Each cell contains many, many ribosomes. The function of a ribosome is to make protein, following instructions sent from the DNA's genes.

24: How organelles work together within the cell | The cell’s main objective is to make proteins and the organelles help in accomplishing this goal. The main organelle in the cell is the nucleus. The nucleus controls all of the activities within the cell. Protecting the nucleus and all of the organelles is the cell membrane. The cytoplasm of the cell is a clear, thick, jellylike material found inside. Its main objective is to support and protect all of the organelles.

25: The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes that carry essential materials through the cell. Ribosomes are small ridges that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum that produce proteins. The mitochondrion is another organelle that breaks down sugar molecules into energy

26: Different types of cells | There are two main groups of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They differ not only in their appearance but also in their structure, reproduction, and metabolism. | Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

27: Differences Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. Eukaryotic DNA is linear while prokaryotic DNA is circular. Eukaryotic DNA is complexed while a prokaryotic cell contains only one circular DNA molecule. Both cell types have many, many ribosomes, but the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than those of the prokaryotic cell. | Comparing and contrasting

28: Similarities | They both have DNA as their genetic material.They are both membrane bound.They both have ribosomes .They have similar basic metabolism .They are both amazingly diverse in forms.

29: Plant and Animal cells | Plant cell- | - animal cell

30: Similarities | They both have the following: nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, flagella, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. They are also both eukaryotic cells.

31: Differences | What plant cells have that animal cells don't: plastids, cell wall, chloroplasts, rectangular shape. What animal cells have that plant cells don't: cilia, round irregular shape, more than one vacuole.

32: References | http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/animalmodel.html http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/botanicalsciences/plantsstructure/TypicalPlant/TypicalPlant.htm http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

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