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Classic Mixbook

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S: I wish I wish I could be a fish! By Serena Hui

BC: The End

FC: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SWIMMING! | I wish I wish... I could be a fish! | By Serena Hui Exercise Science

1: What are you looking for? | Introduction ......................................P.2-3 Major muscles involved ...................P.4-5 How to swim front crawl? .............P.6-11 Joints involved ..............................P.12-13 Muscle fibers involved .................P.14-16 Types of Energy System ...............P.17-21 Factors that affect swimming performance ..................................P.22-25 Common ergonomic aids used in swimming ......................................P.26-34 Nutrition for swimmers ...............P.35-41 Common injuries in swimming ...P.42-45 Biomechanic of swimming ...........P.46-51 Scientific definitions ....................P.52-53

2: InTRoDucTion - Swimming | Worldwide and popular sports for fitness, recreation & compete | High aerobic activity | Enables people with musculoskeletal problem | P.2

3: Learn About Front Crawl Swimming | Fastest competitive swimming stroke | Require shoulder, hip ankle flexibility - proper form | P.3

4: Major muscles in body | P.4

5: Muscles involve in swimming | Primary Muscles | Supporting Muscles | ~Anterior deltoids ~Quadriceps ~Posterior deltoids ~Latissimus dorsi ~Pectorious ~Triceps ~Anterior saratous ~Gluteus maximus ~Hip ~Hamstrings | ~Trapezius ~Triceps ~Upper abdominals ~Lower abdominals | P.5

6: How to Swim Front Crawl? | Arm Movement | Propulsive Phase | 1. Movement first generated by the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major, then lastissimus dorsi quickly joins in - force for underwater pull | P.6

7: 4. When the hand enters the water, the wrist and elbow follow and the arm is extended to the starting position | 3. The tricep brachii then acts to extend the elbow --> bring the hand forward and upward towards the surface of water | 2. Elbow flexor (bicep brachii & brachialis) begins at the start of catch phase - taking elbow from extension to 30* flexion | P.7

8: How to Swim Front Crawl? | Arm Movement | Recovery Phase | - Deltoid, rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and sunscapularis) --primary muscles ~ Bring arm & hand out of water near the hips ~ Return to an overhead position for re-entry into the water - Arm movement is reciprocal in nature -- while one arm is engaged in propulsion, the other is in the recovery process | P.8

9: Leg Movement | 1. Begins at the hip by activation of iliopsoas and rectus femoris muscles - also initiate knee extension 2. Quadriceps join rectus femoris to help generate more forceful knee extension | Propulsive phase/Downbeat | P.9

10: Leg Movement | Recovery phase/upbeat | 1. Starts at the hips with the contraction of the gluteal muscles (gluteus maximums & medius) | 2. Quickly followed by the contraction of the hamstrings group (bicep femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus) | P.10

11: Front Crawl Kick | ~ Feet maintain in a plantar flexed position - entire kicking position ~ Secondary activation of gastrocnemius & soleus | P.11

12: Different Joints Involve in Swimming | Shoulder Joint | Proper front crawl requires full rotation of shoulder joint (synovial/ball& socket Joint ) | 99% of propulsive forces in swimming comes from the upper extremity | Allow arm to brush against the sides of body & rotate backwards | P.12

13: Hip Joint | Involve in mostly leg kicking movement | Synovial/ ball & socket joint - extend and flex leg | Knee Joint | Allow leg to flex and extend during kicking | Second most common joint to get injured from swimming | P.13

14: Muscle Fibers involved in swimming | 58% Slow Twitch fibers 42% Fast Twitch fibers | * exclude competitive swimmers | Why Learn? | Maximize performance by matching the right training method | Train for slow twitch fibers - build more muscles -- increase load bearing capacity | Train for fast twitch fibers - improve oxygen processing capacity in lungs & blood, enhance metabolism | P.14

15: Fast Twitch Fibers | ~Provide energy for sprint swimming ~Ability to tense and relax muscle more quickly ~Generate great amount of tension ~High level of myosin ATPase & contains high levels of glycolytic enzymes ~Activate 2-3 times faster than slow twitch fibers | P.15

16: Slow Twitch Fibers | ~Provide energy for endurance & long distance training ~Generate & relax tension slowly ~Low level of myosin ATPase - don't provide instant energy ~Low level of glycolytic enzymes | P.16

17: 50m Sprint | Energy Systems in Swimming | 65% ATP-PC 30% Lactate 5% Aerobic | P.17

18: 200m Event | 10% ATP PC 20% Lactate 70% Eerobic | P.18

19: ATP-PC System | -Used in short duration up to 10s - for high intensity and fast burst energy sports ~Neither uses oxygen nor lactic acid ~Work by reforming ATP - break down creatine phosphate which forms ATP | P.19

20: Lactic Acid-Anaerobic glycolysis system | ~Ideal for medium physical activities ~Convert glycogen to glucose - with enzymes, glucose is broken down into lactic acid without oxygen ~Plentiful of glycose in body | P.20

21: Aerobic System | ~Provide energy for long duration activities ~Utilize carbohydrate, protein and fat to supply unlimited ATP as long as oxygen is present ~By products: Lactic acid + heat - cause muscle cramps | P.21

22: Factors - influence swimming performance | 1. Sex differences | Males tend to swim faster than females | -Women have a higher portion of body fat than men -men have more muscle weights due to the amount of testosterone in male's bodies | WHY? | P.22

23: Factors - influence swimming performance | 2. Strength | Upper body strength + fast twitch fibers are crucial in sprint swimming | During slow, low intensity swimming, most muscle forces are generated by slow twitch fibers | Swimming is performed almost totally with concentric contraction | P.23

24: Amount of energy required to swim is related to the intensity and stroke used | Factors - influence swimming performance | 3. Energy Generation | Energy is consumed both to maintain buoyancy, generate horizontal movement through the use of arms and legs and overcome drag forces in the water | Total grad forces - wave, skin, friction and viscous pressure drag. | As compare to runners, swimmers need 4 times more energy to cover the same distance | P.24

25: Factors - influence swimming performance | 4. Endurance | ~Ability to repeat muscular contraction(duration + intensity) without fatigue | ~Fatigue leads to decline in the level of performance | P.25

26: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Stanozolol | Anabolic steroids derived from testosterone | Consider as a safer choice for female bodybuilders, while maintaining lean body mass | Help improve muscle growth, red blood cell production, increase bone density | Legal status: consider as a controlled substance under federal regulation | P.26

27: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Nandrolone | Anabolic steriod that may be present naturally in human body | Contain chemical composition similar to testosterone | Boost muscle growth to improve strength and durability | Appetite stimulation, increase red blood cell production, bone intensity | Reduce fatigue, increase muscle and overall strength development | Legal status: illegal banned substance in Olympics | P.27

28: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Clenbuterol | Commonly used by sufferers of breathing disorders as decongestant & bronchodilator e.g. asthma | Also used as performance enhancing drugs | increase aerobic capacity | Central nervous system stimulation | Increase blood pressure & oxygen transportation | Increase rate at which body fat is metabolized ---- increase body's BMR | P.28

29: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Turinabol | Popular sports banned substance in Germany | Help increase strength and & muscle mass | Unique steriod that doesn't armoratize -> change into testosterone once it gets into the body | Damage liver - go through all the systems quickly - cause tiredness & pain | Reduce blood clotting in body -cause excessive bleeding | Cause shutdown of natural production of testosterone | Affect the size of testes | Side EFFECTS | P.29

30: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | testesterone | Play a key role in development of male reproductive tissues & promote secondary sexual characteristics - increase muscle, bone mass | Help improve performance - form of doping in sports | Help enhance muscle development, strength & endurance | Legal status: regarded as "controlled substance" in 1990 | P.30

31: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Cannibis/marijuana | Prohibited substance in sports, although its performance enhancing effects have not been proved | Decrease lung capacity - make it harder for athletes to take deep full breathes | P.31

32: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | caffeine | Found in coffee, tea & chocolate | Raise awareness & alertness | Delay fatigue, more energetic | Diuretic - increase production of urine, more irritable & intense | P.32

33: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Fat burner | Decrease lactic acid level | carnitine | Increase VO2 level & delay fatigue | Found in cardiac & skeletal muscles -- nitrogen molecules bring nutrients to mitochondria for energy | Made in body from amino acids & is needed to release energy from fat | Help endurance activities | P.33

34: Ergogenic aids used in swimming Competitions | Creatine | Enhance aerobic & anaerobic activities | Help supply energy to all cells in body for the muscles and increase the formation of ATP | Help gain muscle mass - body building | Increase maximum power & performance | Legal status: not considered doping & not being banned in most sports governing bodies | P.34

35: Nutrition recommendation to swimmers | Proper nutrition allows swimmers to reach full potential | Body creates energy by breaking the food we consume e.g. carbohydrate, protein & fat | Energy & being able to keep going are crucial factors to achieve great swimming performance | P.35

36: carbohydrate - requirement for swimmers | Most important nutrients - easiest way to get energy to swim faster | Two forms : simple, complex(better course for swim training - release energy at a slow, steady rate) | Should take up half of the food on dinner plate | Provide energy for endurance, prolonged activities | Examples: potatoes, bread, rice , pasta - complex carbs | P.36

37: Fat - requirement for swimmers | Help repair body after training | High fat duet is not good for everyone, especially swimmer | Hamper performance & feel uncomfortable - if eat too much fatty food | Main source of energy when the level of carbohydrate level depletes in body - but may reduce performance (less oxygen rich) | Good for endurance activities | 2 types of fat: saturated (animal sources, polyunsaturated fat(from veggie sources) | P.37

38: protein - requirement for swimmers | Help repair body after training | Build & maintain muscles | protein is not as important as carbohydrate for swimmers | Source of energy when carbohydrate & fat level run low | Body absorbs protein & turn them into amino acid --2 types ~ complete(animal sources), incomplete (veggie sources) | Food sources: meat, fish, egg | P.38

39: fruis & veggie - requirment for swimmers | Eat 5 portions of fruits & vegetables per day - in general | Fruits & veggie provide all vitamins and minerals that the body needs to work properly and to its full potential | 1 portion = a medium size apple, pear | P.39

40: Fluids - requirement for swimmers | While swimming - body sweats & leads to dehydration | Drink frequently - not to drink only when thirsty | Don't drink excess of water - or else the blood concentration level in body will be lowered | Always put a water bottle on the poolside | Being dehydrated will affect performance, concentration and reduces the training time | P.40

41: Glycemic Index food for swimmers | Low glycemic food: ~Eat before exercise ~Help produce energy at a slow, steady rate ~E.g. yogurt & apple | High glycemic food: ~Eat after swimming competition & exhaustive work out ~Simply sugar, recover from exercise quickly ~Increase glycemic level on blood ~E.g. potatoes, processed cereal | P.41

42: Impingement Syndrome | COmmon injuries in swimming | Also known as swimmer's shoulder | Caused by the tendons of the rotator cuff becoming impinged - as they pass through a narrow bony space | Lead to thickening of the tension - cause further problems | With repetitive pinching -the tendons become irritated & inflamed | P.42

43: ~Shoulder pain comes gradually over a long period of time | ~Pain at the front or side of the shoulder joint with front crawl swimming | ~Pain when lifting arm above 90 degrees | Treatment | ~Rest ~Apply ice or cold therapy to the painful area (10-15 minutes) per 2 hours period --- remember to put on ice pad or wrap ice with towel to prevent ice burn | Sports injury professors will... | ~Carry out X-rays to determine the cause of impingement syndrome ~Prescribe anti -flammatory medications ~Advise rehabilitation programs. | Symptoms | P.43

44: COmmon injuries in swimming | Acromioclavicular or AC arthritis | Result of repeated movement that wear away the cartilage surrace at the acromioclavicular joint | Joint surface wears away and causes shoulder separation - commonly used in swimming | AC joint - one of the most important parts of the shoulder - used in everyday tasks and movement | Degenerative pain -prevent the shoulder from rotating & moving - in serious case | P.44

45: Pain associated with stretching arms - front of shoulder | The pain feels moderate and become more significant over time, similar to burning sensations | Non surgical Treatment: ~Rest ~Physical therapy ~Take anti- inflammatory medications ~Ice shoulder for 20-30 minutes to reduce inflammation, ease pain | Surgical Treatment: ~Replace with entire shoulder joint - total shoulder arthrolpasty ~Resecting arthroplasty | Symptoms | Limited shoulder rotation movement | P.45

46: Biomechanics of swimming | Acceleration: Swimmer accelerates when dive into water | Force: Applied when push off from the wall or jump from the swimming board | Impulse: Contact of the feet and diving board when dive into water, contact of your hand/leg when push off from the wall | P.46

47: Lever (3rd class): Longer arms help to swim faster with less resistance & increase impulse | Linear motion: Swim in a straight line to maximize force - or else the momentum will be lost due to wave drag | Angular motion: Involve when doing flip turn at the end of the pool - motion around an axis | P.47

48: Biomechanics of swimming | DRAG | Retarding force due to resistance that the body undergoes when swimming through water ~Due to water viscosity, high speed that cause turbulence | Types of drag: ~Friction drag ~Pressure drag ~Wave drag | P.48

49: Friction Drag | Due to water viscosity | Proportional to the total surface area of swimmer & speed | Frictional force between different layers of water as they move past each other ~ | Total drag by water equals to viscous force | Prevent friction drag : wear friction reduction swim suit | P.49

50: Pressure Drag | The orderly water flows over the swimmer's body & separate at a certain point, depending on the shape, size and velocity of swimmer | Behind the separation point , flow reverses | Causes a pressure differential arises between the front & rear of swimmer - cause pressure drag | P.50

51: Wave Drag | When swimming near the surface, the water tends to pile up in front of the swimmer and form"hollow" from behind - create wave system | Increase velocity, wave length and wave amplitude increase | Lane ropes are used to overcome wave drag | Streamlined body after pushing off from the wall - help goes further | P.51

52: Glossary | Gastrocnemius - Chief muscles of the calf of leg, which flexes the knee and foot | Soleus - Broad muscles in the lower calf | Glycolytic ~ An ATP generating metabolic process that occur in nearly all the cells in body in which glucose is converted into a series of pyruvic acid | BMR - Basal Metabolic Rate - the amount of daily energy while at rest | P.52

53: Myosin ATPase ~ An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of myosin ATP in the presence of actin to form myosin ATP - immediate source of free energy for muscle contraction | Testosterone ~ Steroid hormone that is found in mammals - principle male sex hormone | Concentric contraction ~ Common form of muscle contraction that occurs in rhythmic activities when the muscle fibers shorten as tension develops | P.53

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  • Title: Classic Mixbook
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