BC: Created By: Rochelle Martin, Gina Portena & Laken Smith
FC: Created By Rochelle Martin, Laken Smith & Gina Portena | The Far North Indigenous Peoples
1: ~Locations ~Culture and Religion ~Fashion and Clothing ~Colonialism ~Uniqueness of Tinglit ~Connection to the Land | Table of Contents | ~NGO Support ~Sustaining Economic Needs ~Uniqueness of Aluet ~Effects of the Government ~Contemporary Issues ~Uniqueness of...
2: Locations | The Tlingit are extended across the border between Alaska and British Columbia. This native group has occupied areas along the major rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean. Some of these rivers include; Alsek, Stikine, Taku, Chilkat and Tatshenshini. | Location of Tlingit and neighboring peoples highlighted in red.
3: The Aleut, or Unangan, as they call themselves, inhabit the Aleutian archipelago. They are placed on a 1,300-mile-long volcanic island arc extending from the Alaska Peninsula west nearly to Kamchatka. Also around the area known as Pribilof. | Location of the Aleut Tribe is where the red area is highlighted.
4: The Haida are located Southeast Alaska, and are more closely related to the native people of Canada than to the other Alaskan groups. | Haida
5: Culture & Religion | The Haida people spent the period from spring to autumn busy gathering and storing food. They would draw much of their supplies from the seas - fish, clams, herring roe, even sea weed. Seals would be caught and slaughtered for their fat content. | Animals was considered as people more intelligent than humans. Animals had the ability yo transform themselves into any human form. The traditional beliefs have be largely displaced by Christianity, however many Haida still believe in reincarnation. | Haida Tribe performing a cultural ritual.
6: Culture & Religion | To the right is a picture of the Aleut Tribes cultural practices. | The Aleut have varying classes of chiefs, nobles, commoners and slaves. *Marriage and Couples in the Aluet tribe: A man could take a wife and take all his wives sisters. And when a man has one wife, all of his brothers may share that same wife. There were no set rules in their culture between couples.* | There is a respectful alliance between the missionaries and the native population and the overlap of world views which account for the importance of the Orthodox church in Alaska today. On the Pribilofs, the Orthodox churches provided a continuum of ritual and tradition during periods of strong social conditions and change. | *Old melodies are sung in the churches in Aleut, Slavonic, and English. Activities such as hunting, sealing, fishing, and berry picking receive the priest's blessing, and all the houses in the village are ritually blessed at least once a year.* | They live in wood frame houses, engage in fishing, hunting, and raising sheep, and eat processed foods.
7: The Russian Orthodox and Presbyterian faiths have had the longest and greatest impact on the Tlingit society. Other religions that few Tlingit people are members of are the Bahai's, Baptist Churches, and the Jehovah Witnesses. The Tlingit people believe that all life is of equal value. That humans and animals are respected equally. | To the left shown is a totem pole, carved by the Tlingit's. Totem poles are a monumental sculpture carved by Native American cultures along the Pacific northwest coast of North America.
8: Fashion & Clothing | The Aleut wear clothing that is very fitting for the weather. On special occasions they wear clothing with lots of small detailing. | The Alaskan cultures and specifically the Aleut wore clothing made from bird skin, and sometimes the skin from sea otters, sea lions and fur seals.This type of attire was very fitting considering the harsh and cold weather.
9: Traditional Tlingit men and women wore loincloths and skirts made of cedar bark. Due to the rainy weather in southeastern Alaska, raincoats were worn also made of natural elements. Today, the Tlingit people wear loincloths and cedar bark skirts. They display their clan or family emblem on clothing or through jewelery. | The most distinctive form of ceremonial dress that is admired is the Chilkat robe. The robe is made from mountain goat wool and cedar bark strips and generally exhibits an emblem of the clan. This garment takes a weaver one to five years to make. | The picture above is a Chilkat robe with an emblem of a Tlingit clan.
10: The top photo is traditional mens clothing for the tribe. The photo to the left is an example of the capes they would wear
11: Men usually went barefoot because shoes or sandals wore out too quickly. Footwear was only worn in the winter. | In addition to footwear during cold temperatures, the men used seal skin and deerskin to create pants to keep them warm. During the summer when temperatures were hot, a lot of the males stayed inside their homes without any clothes on to escape the heat. | Women typically wore skirts and sometimes tunics. When it was hot, less clothing was worn. Clothes primarily made from Red Cedar Bark or deerskin. Capes were popular within the tribe and were worn by men and women. Women’s capes were usually shorter then mens. Capes were decorated with painted animals.
12: Colonialism | *Encounters with the Europeans caused the tribe numbers to fall drastically. *Haida attempted to maintain their culture and values but these efforts failed when the Canadian Government banned potlatches, an important part of Haida culture. This was in attempt to force the European ways upon them. Totem poles were banned as well during this time, however they were restored in the 1900s. | Totem poles such as these were burnt and destroyed
13: Quick overview of the Colonial effects on the Aleut. 1918-1942 was known as the regime for the Aleut. Their initial instinct was to avoid the effects of colonialism by "grabbing what was available and getting out fast." This colonialist attitude obviously influenced the evolution of the Pribiilof management system. The colonial concept is useful in explaining why in the 1930s the Aleuts' situation worsened as that of other Americans improved.
14: Polatches Potlatches are a part of Tlingit history and modern-day life. A potlatch is a giant feast that marks a time for showing respect, paying debts, and displaying wealth. Tlingit people give grandly at potlatches to raise their status. Potlatches are given for various reasons and may be planned for years in advance. The most common potlatches given today are funeral potlatches, the 40-Day Party, memorial potlatches, adoption potlatches, naming potlatches, totem-pole-raising potlatches, and house- or lodge-building potlatches. | Uniqueness of... | Polatch dancers.
15: Tlingit | Language The Tlingit language is a tone language that has 24 sounds not found in English. Much of the Tlingit language is guttural and some of the sounds are similar to that of German. Unlike the English alphabet of 26 letters, the Tlingit language has at least 32 consonants and eight vowels. The alphabet was created with not only the familiar lettering of English but also with periods, underlines on letters, and apostrophes to distinguish particular sounds. | To the left, is a photo of Tlingit people wearing Chilkat robes.
16: Connection to the Land | Amazing Alaska, the land of the Aleut
17: The Haida require the animals for much of their clothing as well as their food.. Seals provide for lots of warm clothing. Similar to the Aleut they require the land for daily use and heavily rely on it. | The Aleut have a strong connection to their land as they rely on it to live. They hunt for foods and thrive off of the land. <-------------------------------------------------- | The Tlingit also have a strong connection to their land and animals that live on the land. They hunt for foods and thrive off of the land much like the Aleut.. | The Taku river, one of the major rivers the Tlingit have occupied.
18: Uniqueness of ... | Aleut men honored the sea mammal spirits by wearing highly decorated hunting costumes. Aleut men honored the sea mammal spirits by wearing highly decorated hunting costumes. | At sea, Aleut men wore wooden hunting hats. The shape of the headgear indicated a man's rank; a short visor was worn by the young and inexperienced hunters, an elongated visor by the rank-and-file, and open-crown long-visored hats by important mature men.
19: the Aleut | Aleut basketry is some of the finest in the world, the continuum of a craft dating back to prehistoric times and carried through to the present. Early Aleut women created baskets and woven mats of exceptional technical quality using only an elongated and sharpened thumbnail as tool. | Today Aleut weavers continue to produce woven pieces of a remarkable cloth-like texture, works of modern art with roots in ancient tradition. | The Aleut word for grass basket is qiigam aygaaxsii.
20: Effects of the Government
21: Tlingit and Haida people have been and continue to be very active in both community and clan politics and tribal governments as well as in state and city issues. Many Tlingits since the 1920s have won seats in the Territorial legislature, setting in motion Tlingit involvement in all aspects of politics and government. period, | Aleut society was ranked, with hereditary classes of high nobles, commoners, and slaves. The leaders were recruited from the high nobles or the chiefly elite. This ranking was reflected in allocation of living space
22: Government Continued | cv | The Haida had a very simple political structure. Commoners, slaves and nobles were included in this structure. Nobles had the right to hunt while commoners could hunt but only at a price. Nobles and their immediate family were located at the top of the class. In the middle were the commoners as well as their extended family or chief. At the bottom were the slaves whom obtained no rights.
23: The Haida kept slaves that they captured in raids and tribal warfare. These slaves were always male. The slaves were assigned tasks to complete. Craftsmen and fishermen of society filled sacred roles that way they were always given freedom; never enslaved. At Potlaches slaves were commonly traded. Eventually the government outlawed slavery. | Wealth was passed along through the mothers side of the family. Haida tribe tried to stay away from getting into wars with tribes with the same social structure. Social rank was more important to the Haida tribe then tribal status. Potlatches allowed for ones social status in the tribe to be recognized. Marriage did not occur at Potlatches because it did not involve the exchange of a social status.
24: Contemporary Issues | * In 1935 the Tlingit and Haida brought suit against the United States in a court of claims case that awarded the Tlingit and Haida of Alaska $7.2 million for the taking of aboriginal lands by the United States | Haida relies on the land, and much of it is being used toward commercial activities. The tribe continues to pursue in order to protect as much land as possible. | The land the Haida tribe lives off of.
25: In 1996 a devastating oil spill took place, the Aleut new this was going to change things for now and for future generations. | Aleut | In 1998, Aleut leader, Aquilina Bourdukofsky wrote: | “I believe we exist generationally. Would we be as strong as we are if we didn’t go through the hardships, the slavery? It’s powerful to hear the strength of our people – that’s what held them together in the past and today.”
26: Uniqueness Of | Ravens Could Use: Ravens Hawks Grizzly Bears Wolves Sea Wolves Killer Whales The Moon | Eagles Could Use: Eagles Dragonflies Beavers Frogs Sea Wolves Ravens Hawks Killer Whales | Each clan had the right to certain symbols for their totem pole. | "Háw'aa" (sounds a little like how-ah) means "thank you" in Haida.
27: The nation was divided into two parts called the Eagle clan and the Raven clan. In order to determine which clan a person would be is, the line of the mother was looked at. The children were always of the mother's clan. When getting married, partners were only aloud to be of the other clan. When the children were still young the marriages were often arranged. | TheHaida | The history, lineage, wealth and status of a family within the clan was carefully depicted on totem poles. Some of the poles depicted mythical or spiritual creatures. | Although many of the Haida speak English today, many elders still speak their native Haida language. | Thus Is a totem pole created by the Eagle Clan of the Haida Tribe
28: Reference List-All Pictures http://blogs.worldbank.org/dmblog/category/tags/indigenous-peoples?page=2 http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads/aleut.html http://meltingtheice.wordpress.com/tag/alaska/ http://itcteacheronthetrail.wordpress.com/2010/06/26/exploring-native-alaskan-cultures/ http://topbesttraveldestinations.com/alaska/ http://capitalcityweekly.com/stories/021407/news_20070214008.shtml http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_nwc5.html http://www.shamana.co.uk/north_pacific_shamanism/index.html http://cpawsbc.zenutech.com/node/237 http://www.aaanativearts.com/alaskan-natives/alaska-indians.html http://www.familychronicle.com/HistoryOfGenealogy.html http://www.megaphonemagazine.com/legacy/content/eagle_and_bear_mysterious_totem_pole_fosters_cultural_understanding.html
29: Reference List | "Tlingit - Early history, First contact with europeans, The land claims period, Acculturation and assimilation." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 30: References Pictures http://stylishkidsinriot.com/wordpress/fashion/nomadic-couture%E2%80%94brittany-biersdorf-and-natalie-lemagueresse-and-their-descendents-of-dragon http://www.sitnews.us/SitnewsArchives/0507/050707_sitnews.html http://www.images-photography-pictures.net/Alaska_United_States.htm 31: Reference List | Haida Village Life . (n.d.). Saskatchewan Schools and School Divisions. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.saskschools.ca/~avonlea2/grass3/grade56/lifekg.htm Haida - New World Encyclopedia. (2008, April 3). Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Haida Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (n.d.). Facts for Kids: Haida Indians (Haidas). Orrin's Website. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.bigorrin.org/haida_kids.htm Religion and expressive culture - Haida. (n.d.). Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Haida-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html The Haida Tribe. (n.d.). Essortment. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from www.essortment.com/haida-tribe-33577.html Yorkshire, T. (2010, November 19). Analyzing The Haida Tribe: Before & After The Europeans. Find Health, Education, Science & Technology Articles, Reviews, How-To and Tech Tips At Bright Hub - Apply To Be A Writer Today!. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.brighthub.com/society/cultures-customs/articles/92542.aspx
30: References Pictures http://stylishkidsinriot.com/wordpress/fashion/nomadic-couture%E2%80%94brittany-biersdorf-and-natalie-lemagueresse-and-their-descendents-of-dragon http://www.sitnews.us/SitnewsArchives/0507/050707_sitnews.html http://www.images-photography-pictures.net/Alaska_United_States.htm
31: Reference List | Haida Village Life . (n.d.). Saskatchewan Schools and School Divisions. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.saskschools.ca/~avonlea2/grass3/grade56/lifekg.htm Haida - New World Encyclopedia. (2008, April 3). Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Haida Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (n.d.). Facts for Kids: Haida Indians (Haidas). Orrin's Website. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.bigorrin.org/haida_kids.htm Religion and expressive culture - Haida. (n.d.). Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Haida-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html The Haida Tribe. (n.d.). Essortment. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from www.essortment.com/haida-tribe-33577.html Yorkshire, T. (2010, November 19). Analyzing The Haida Tribe: Before & After The Europeans. Find Health, Education, Science & Technology Articles, Reviews, How-To and Tech Tips At Bright Hub - Apply To Be A Writer Today!. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.brighthub.com/society/cultures-customs/articles/92542.aspx