FC: Cold War Scrapbook By: Ashley Parambil Hubbard - Period 5 IB History of the Americas
1: Chapter 1: Korea/Vietnam
2: Washington D.C. Tribune Koreans clash in war! The Korean War began on June 25, 1950, with the start of the North Korean’s People army (KPA), led by the communist supporting Kim Il Sung over the Democratic Republic of Korea (DPRK), crossed the 38th parallel with the intentions of capturing the leader of the South Korean country (Republic of Korea, ROK), Syngman Rhee. The two leaders, each wanting the title of the leader of the united Korea, clashed in their political views (communism vs. anti-communism). In order to capture Rhee, the KPA had to cross the 38th parallel, which was the dividing border between North and South Korea, the Northern portion was administered by the Soviet Union and the southern portion was administered by the U.S. Rhee then was able to escape Seoul and then conduct the Bobo League massacre on June 28, 1950. As the war progressed, U.S. troops and UN sent troops led by the General McArthur aided South Korea throughout the war in order to push North Korean troops back past the 38th parallel. The U.S. then created a policy of ‘rollback’, liberating North Koreans from the Communist rule and uniting Korea. On March 27, 1950, the North Korean army alongside the Chinese army marched towards the Yalu River with a force of 300,000 men and sent the UN troops to retreat back, recapture the city of Pyongyang and the remaining territory up to the 38th parallel. After several tries by President Truman to keep Communism from spreading into South Korea, peace talks began in 1950 with the aim of repatriations of prisoners of war (sending back troops to their native country) and talk of the U.S. using an atomic bomb against China surfaced. A military armistice 9cease fighting) was signed at Panmunjom in July 1953. Vietnamese War The Vietnamese sparked due to the disagreement between the Vietnamese nationalists, led by Communist Ho Chi Minh in the Vietminh movement, and the French and Japanese authority who had previously established rule over Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia). After Ho declared in 1945 independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the French and Japanese powers did not agree or have any intentions of relieving their power over the country, war began in 1946. At first, America pressured France to give up their power in Vietnam, but following Truman’s presidency, a stronger attitude of resistance against Ho and Communism began. In March of 1950, aid was sent to the French army to defeat the Vietminh. During the Vietnam War, many people began to promote the Domino Theory, stating that once Vietnam became communist it would influence other surrounding countries in Indochina to become communist as well. However, in 1954 the French were defeated in the battle of Dien Bien Phu and the French according to the Geneva Records were to withdraw from Vietnam. As a result the 17th parallel was established in the Geneva Records splitting the Vietnamese country into north (controlled by communist Ho Chi Minh) and south (supported by the U.S., anti-communist). Vietnam was granted free-elections in 1956, all foreign bases were removed and Laos and Cambodia became independent states. The South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was established and signed by Australia, Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand to protect the South- East Asian countries from further attacks. Later the U.S. began to support Ngo Dinh Diem, as a leader for Southern Vietnam, but Diem soon became a ruthless leader looking to establish a dictatorship and provide no effective reforms, this lead to the establishment of the Vietcong or VC, which were groups of Southern Vietnamese communists, support by Ho, to remove the Diem rule and establish communism in Southern Vietnam. | Current Events & Headlines
3: Vietcong Was a political army in southern Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the American and the South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War. The VC, included many recruited from the north Vietnamese army and the people’s arm of Vietnam. The VC was established to remove the power of the then president Ngo Dinh Diem and promote communism in southern Vietnam. Domino Theory Theory used by the U.S. during the 1950s and 1980s for waging war, stating that if one country became communist then surrounding countries would soon follow the trend similar to a domino effect. The domino theory was political propaganda used by the U.S. government to gather support from the public to participate in war. | Ngo Dinh Diem Ngo Dinh Diem (1901- 1963), was the 1st president of South Vietnam and was known as the creator of the Republic of Vietnam. He at first gained much support from the U.S. for his view of anti-communism but then began to establish a “dictatorship” based on forcing the Catholic religion to majority Buddhist population. He lost the support of the U.S. and was later assassinated in 1963. | Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969), a Communist leader of the Vietminh, a resistance movement against the Japanese and French powers established in Vietnam, sought independence for Vietnam and received secret support from the U.S. for some time. He became a symbol for inspiring hope and independence for the Vietnamese people and to continue to fight against American and French forces well after his death, the capital of Southern Vietnam is named Ho Chi Minh City in honor of him. | Politics
4: Communism vs. Anti-communism in Vietnam Communism was the battling form of political establishment within the Vietnamese country during the war. The Vietnamese people supported the communist leader, ho chi minh, to remove French and Japanese power and to declare independence in Vietnam. The Vietnamese government in northern Vietnam following the war was a communist province led by ho chin minh and the southern portion for 8 years was ruled by ngo dinh diem, who was a strong anti-communist supporter and supported the catholic religion in Vietnamese law, was soon removed by the southern Vietnamese nationalists to promote communism in southern Vietnam as well. Communism vs. Anti-communism in Korea Communism was the desired form of government by North Korea led by the communist leader kim il sung. South korea supported by the anto-communist and undemocratic leader synghman rhee. Both leader strived to unite both provinces into a single korea but both competed for who would win and what form of government would take control. $Korean Economy$ Prior to the start of the Korean War, the Korean economy was fused with the Japanese economy, after the beginning of war the Korean economy declined all together. Russian control then worsen the entire Korean economy by providing economic help to only half the region (North Korea) by providing coal deliveries, railway service, electrical power to areas north of the 38th parallel, therefore, leaving South Korea to suffer economically with little economic help from allies. $Vietnamese Economy$ During the Vietnam War the country was split into two different regions that possessed two different economic ideologies; North was communist and the South was capitalist. The result of war caused many civilian deaths including those of skilled workers/laborers, technicians, professionals etc. Throughout the years of the country’s industrial production dropped as the country began to slip in long period of unemployment and low productivity rates. Well into the 1990’s the country’s rate in production increased however by as much as an impressive 20-30%. | Economy
5: Culture in Vietnam -With Ngo Dinh Diem as President -Enforced laws in favor the Catholic religion and culture upon the majority Buddhist population. -Brothels and opium dens were closed. -Divorce and abortion were made illegal. -Adultery laws were made stricter. Culture in Korea -A new form of music began to make way to the country during the Korean War called “Rock” brought by American troops in Korea. -Fashion during the Korean War was similar between both states (North & South) and was heavily influenced by Western culture. | Culture
6: Chapter 2: China
7: During the peak years after World War II and the growing success of the Bolsheviks in the USSR, the communist influence began to grow in China creating the Chinese Communist Party. Communism is a political ideology in which a society is deemed as classless, moneyless and means of production is based on ownership. The goals of the communist party were to unify China and to redress the humiliation China has once undergone. However, another political group also sought to unify China under their political rule, the Nationalist Party of Guomindang (GMD). The communist party of China (CCP) was led by Mao Zedong from the start of 1949 and the GMD was led by Chiang Kai-shek, both parties undergoing several on and off truces. Zedong held a strong alliance wit Stalin as both were major communist rulers but, both as differing views on communism. Zedong believed Marxism was interpreted as using peasants for the basis of a revolution but Stalin believed it was the basis for an urban-based class war. Mao Zedong eventually wont he Chinese Civil War with Soviet backing against the Nationalist Party and became the founding father of the People's Republic of China. | Current Events & Headlines | Maoist
8: Mao Zedong (1893 – 1976) Zedong was the communist leader Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the founding father of the Peoples Republic of China and a Marxist philosopher. Mao Zedong was most famously known to have received is fame and rise to power through the start of the Chinese Civil war in 1946 against the Chinese Nationalist forces led by Chiang Kai-shek. Zedong was victorious at the end of the Civil War in 1949 and was later appointed as the first communist ruler of the Peoples Republic of China. Throughout the years, Zedong’s economic, political and social plans were internationally criticized and caused much suffering such as famines. Zhou Enlai (1898 – 1976) Enlai was the first Premier of the Republic of China from 1949 to 1976. As the premier, Enali severed mainly as the prime minster of PCR at the time. Enlai severed under Zedong and was known for his success in establishing foreign policies, developing the Chinese economy and keeping hold of the communist party's influence in china. Enlai was known for his methods of advocating and practicing peaceful coexistence with the west after the Korean War and was known for his large efforts in rebuilding china after the damage made by the red guards during the Cultural Revolution. Policies & Political Events From 1966 – 1976 Mao Zedong established what was known as the Cultural Revolution in China in order to enforce socialism in China by removing capitalist, traditional and cultural elements of the society and replacing it with his Maoist elements. As many people rebelled against this ideology they were tortured, killed, raped etc and the Cultural Revolution eventually died off and has been seen by all as negative and a failure. In 1989 protests and riots began to emerge in China centering on a pro-democracy movement which resulted in the death in hundreds and which ended in June of 1989. The riots were best known to have taken place in Tiananmen Square, the largest city square in the center of Beijing. | Zhou Enlai | Mao Zedong | Politics
9: The Great Leap Forward Mao Zedong after taking his authoritarian rule established a fiver year planned in January of 1958 called “The Great Leap Forward”. The Great Leap Forward a plan to encourage economic growth within their country as an alternative to the soviet plan by centering on heavy industry rather than the other ideas of those in the party. By centering on industry the agricultural sectors of the country merged into people's communes, or separated production units which were centered in towns. During this time in industry building Mao encouraged the large production of pig iron and steel. However, the Great Leap Forward proved to be a failure as this economic plan turned for the worst and China entered a widespread famine as result from over exporting grain and other food sources. 14 million died as a result and Mao late stepped down from his position at the State Chairman of the People's Republic of China in 1959 but was still the leader of the CCP. Four Modernizations These were the aims set by Zhou Enlai, the First Premier (Prime Minister) of the People’s Republic of China to become stronger in the areas of science, agriculture, industry, military and technology. These aims were a part of an intention to strengthen the Chinese economy and were implemented in 1978 shortly after the death of Mao Zedong. -During Mao’s reign, heavy industry was heavily focused on. -The proletarian class (wage workers) was created by Mao under the Marxist model. -Grain and steel production were developed and strengthened. -Communes were established; peasants now lived in urban areas where they were required to work within their own home with backyard furnaces---producing steel and pig iron. -Agricultural sectors began to fail. -‘Close cropping’ was established- seeds planted close together. | Ecomony
10: -Maoist ideas such as those in Cultural Revolution were being enforced. -Mao encouraged the youth to denounce elders, teachers, parents etc. of their old ways for the Maoist ways. -‘Little Red Book’ was a book consisting of Mao Zedong’s thoughts and quotes that became a vital accessory during the Cultural Revolution. -Art was being recreated in order to illustrate the new socialist society; many artists whose work was depicted as anti-socialist were persecuted and prohibited from working. -Peking opera became a famous and cultural achievement of the Cultural Revolution. -Many relics and artifacts depicting or relating to the ‘old way’ of thinking were destroyed. -Political slogans from Mao, the Red Guards and the socialist party were found everywhere from bus tickets to cigarette packets. | Culture | Cultural Revolution
11: Chapter 3: Soviet Union Stalin to Khrushchev | Stalin | Sputnik | Communism
12: Between the years 1944 and 1948 the USSR communist leader, Josef Stalin, had now established control of a generous amount of land in Eastern Europe. By 1949, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Easter Germany, Romania and Poland were on the eastern portion of the ‘iron curtain’. The ‘iron curtain’ was a speech presented by the Prime Minister of the U.K., Winston Churchill, in 1946 saying that free and democratic elections would be held in Eastern Europe after the war and that from East Germany to Czechoslovakia the Soviet Communist regime is seeking to create complete totalitarian control and to wage elements of warfare and that all capitals and cities within the Soviet sphere of influence ‘iron curtain’ will be cut off from outside global opportunities. However during the Cold War, the Soviet Union was in constant competition with the U.S. to keep its power it had accumulated after WWII intact and to compete to be the most successful in industry and technology. United Nations Assembled and Soviet Union's Role Established on the basis of the U.S. government to replace the previous League of Nations was approved by both the British and Soviet powers. The UN was created in order to settle international disputes through collective security. Stalin at this time following the Yalta Conference agreed that he Soviet Union would be apart of the UN and but demanded that the 16 Soviet Republics have separate seats in the UN General Assembly as the allies had agreed prior to have fiver permanent members of Security Council for each region. In the end the Soviet Union was given only 3 separate seats for Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Soviet Reaction with Warsaw Pact The NATO was established by the U.S. in April of 1949 and consisted of the USA, Canada, Ireland and 13 European states which would become the first peaceful military alliance. It was assumed that one attack on a country member of NATO was an attack on all members. After the entrance of Greece and Turkey in 1955 the USSR disagreed and then set up the Warsaw Pact as a response. The Warsaw Pact brought all Eastern European states into a single military command was viewed more as a political alliance marked the state of Europe's political, military and economic division. Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis was the 13 day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba at one point and the United States and Cuba at the other point. Such events that took place during this included Castro seizing power in Cuba in 1959, the first shipment of arms from the USSR is given to Cuba, Castro accepting Texaco Oil and Esso oil refines and rejecting Russian oil, Castro creating a socialist regime, Castro refuses to allow UN inspectors in Cuba etc. The main aim of the Cuban Missile Crisis was the USSR and Cuba was to make a number of medium range missiles to strike the U.S.A. The U.S. demanded that the Soviets halt missile construction in Cuba and made agreements under the terms of the U.S., UN and the USSR to send the missile construction back to Russia. Sputnik On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched the world's first artificial satellite called “Sputnik” or translated “the traveling companion” with Sputnik II following a month later. The Americans became worried because they feared they would fall back in the technological advance against the USSR. The officially started the “space race”. Bay of Pigs Was a CIA –American launched plan in March of 1960 to overthrow the communist regime led by Fidel Castro in Cuba by training Cuban refugees for an invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. The mission was an ultimate failure with over 1,200 of the 1,400 original refugees being captured by Cuban forces. The plan was created by President Eisenhower and then continued by President Kennedy who then received much national and international criticism for the failure of the mission. The Soviets in this event were a key ally for the Cubans by providing ample ammunition and supplies which the American forces lacked leading to their failure. Berlin Wall Due to the Soviet occupation of East Germany tension began to grow as many Germans wanted escape to West Germany to relieve themselves of the hardship and communist rule in East Germany. On August 13, 1961, Khrushchev set up a barbed war to seal off East Germany from West Germany and later cutting them off by creating a solid, concrete wall. This action revealed that the Soviets needed to contain the German people in order to keep their communist rule and influence in control. | Current Events & Headlines
13: Marshall Plan and the Soviet Reaction The Marshall Plan was a speech given in January of 1947 by Secretary of State General George Marshall declaring that all economies of Western Europe needed to seek immediate attention and help from the U.S. The Marshall Plan however was unsure of whether they would allow the Soviet Union to take part in the benefit and eventually created criteria to see the countries financial reports, a rule the Soviets would not approve of, therefore not directly rejecting the Soviet Union aid but allowing them to deny it themselves. The aims of the Marshall Plan included reviving the European working economies so that political and social stability could ensue and to safeguard the future of the U.S. economy. The Soviets immediately rejected the Marshall Plan because the Americans had set the covering of financial records rule which the Soviets did not agree to. The Soviets saw this as American ‘dollars imperialism’ or the USA’s way of establishing a European empire based on economic domination dependence leading to political power and control. Containment The policy of containment was developed the U.S. in order to ensure they were safe from potential foreign powers and proved to be successful in Europe. In means of gaining territory, the Soviet Union made no success and the last means of territorial expansion by the Soviets was in 1947. The containment policy was one that was a series of responses for the moves made by the Soviets to spread communist influence in Korea, Eastern Europe, China etc. Fidel Castro Fidel Castro was the dictator of communist Cuba (Prime Minister of Communist Cuba) from the years of 1959 to 2011. Fidel Castro was born into a wealthy family and went to school to become a lawyer. After becoming a lawyer he saw many cases of the poor and became aware of the social inequalities in the Cuban society. In 1947 Castro joined the Cuban People's Party and had an immense hatred for the domination of Americans in every aspect of Cuban culture. After leading an effective revolution in 1952 Fidel became Cuba's new leader in January 1959. Castro established a socialist society within Cuba establishing free health care, suppressing internal opposition and introducing free education. Castro has been charged with several cases of human rights abuses both in his native country and abroad. His officially resigned in 2011 after suffering serious medical conditions and passed his title down to his brother Raul Castro. Brinkmanship The policy developed by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles where threats of massive retaliation as a tool of containment, basically using intimidating and threatening of nuclear war to frighten the aggressor. The U.S. government thus decided to created summits to ensure peaceful negotiations and use brinkmanship for only last resorts. Soviet-US summits were held between the years of 1955-1959 under the rule of the new Soviet leader after Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev. President Kennedy (1917-1963) John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States from 1961 to 1963. John F. Kennedy served as president during many of the most crucial events of the Cold War including the Bay of Pigs, the Berlin Wall, the Vietnam War, and the Cuban Missile Crisis etc. He was eventually assassinated in Dallas, Texas, by Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963. President Kennedy is regarded as one of the most loved presidential figures in American history. | Politics
14: Truman Doctrine and Soviet Reaction The Truman Doctrine was a speech made to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947, by President Harry S. Truman which established a new foreign policy that strayed away from isolationist principles. The Truman Doctrine in response to the political stress and pressure being emitted from the communist Soviet Union to other European countries stated that the nation would be willing to provide ‘support to free peoples who revisiting attempted subjugation by armed minorities of by outside pressures’ this speech was targeted at the countries of Turkey and Greece. The Soviets saw this doctrine as a way fro the determined U.S. to expand its sphere of influence and they did not believe the Americans were legit on providing this support in Europe. Soviet Economy -Was a socialist economy under Stalin’s power and after the First Five Year Plan. -Was a powerful industrial economy. -During the post-war period the Soviet Union improved and expanded their economy (strict centralized control) | $ | $ | $ | Economy
15: Culture -The writing of Nobel Prize winners such as Boris Pasternak, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and Joseph Brodsky were put under censorship in the Soviet Union. -The Soviet government prevented from publishing their work in the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and other Communist countries, Eastern European and -Soviet writers began to use samizdat, illegal self-publishing and tamizdat illegal publishing houses in Western Europe—to evade censors.
16: Chapter 4: Soviet Union from Brezhnev to Yeltsin | Chapter 4: Soviet Union from Brezhnev to Yeltsin | Berlin Wall | End to war?
17: Current Events & Headlines | Détente The détente is a period of time between 1968 and 1980 where the U.S. and the USSR tried to establish a more peaceful and co-operative relationship towards the end of the Cold War. Détente itself means relaxation of tension and was a popular term among many during the 1970s to describe the improved relations. The détente also occurred between the U.S. and China and between the USSR and Western Europe. The détente between the US and the USSR was short lived as it ended after 1980 with the start of the second Cold War. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) are the discussions and signing of treaties between the major power of the Cold War, the U.S. and the USSR, on the topic of armament control. The SALT consisted of two discussions (SALT I and SALT II) The SALT first began in Helsinki, Finland, in 1969 with the first SALT I leading to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and with SALT II leading to a disagreed treaty in 1978 with the Soviet Union and the US. The results of the talks resulted in reduction in the production of nuclear weapons by both the U.S. and USSR and froze several missile launchers at existing states. Glasnost Was a policy known for ‘openness’ created by Mikhail Gorbachev after assuming presidency in the Soviet Union in 1985. The main idea of the policy was to ensure that every principle is of the regime would open to public scrutiny. This was sign of ‘democratization’ in the USSR allowing more people to become involved in the politics and the Communist Party. Fall of the Berlin Wall After the excruciating rule of communist Erich Honecker in East Germany causing much strife and social tension in November of 1989 after Mikhail Gorbachev of the USSR refused to intervene in a revolution among the East Germans and with a miscommunication in the security directions to open checkpoints thousands of East and West Berliners swarmed the opened gates of the Berlin Wall and crossed over and destroyed the Berlin Wall (both East and West Germans) ending the Cold War and promising free elections for 1990. Collapse of the Soviet Union Even though Gorbachev’s polices received international admiration and claim it did little to help the state of the USSR and he then so became increasingly unpopular. This soon led to more events of Eastern European independence and by 1991 the Soviet Union was history. Countries by then such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania had declared their independence along with other Soviet republics. Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia Ethnic cleansing is the removal of certain people of a specific ethnicity by force and or intimidation. The most known form of ethnic cleansing took place in Yugoslavia, Croatia and Bosnia when Croats and Bosnians were being removed from the areas by Serbs, and other Croatians. This event was coupled by the murder, rape and detention of many who were expected to flee from these areas due to the levels of intense violence. The period of ethnic cleansing took place from 1992 to 1995. | SALT
18: Nixon (1913 – 1994) Richard Nixon was the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. During his presidency Nixon developed a close knit working relationship with his chief adviser, Henry Kissinger, in which both created and carried out the détente with the USSR and China. In June of 1972, however, Nixon was involved in a national scandal known as ‘The Watergate Scandal’ in which Nixon along with other party members were accused of breaking into the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters and stealing money. He was also later accused of implementing a tape recording system in the phone system of the oval office, eventually proving his cover up for the break in. He soon resigned due to the negative attention of the case in 1974. Reagan (1911-2004) Ronald Reagan was the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1990. Ronald Reagan was known by many for his anti-communist views and for his presidency during the Second Cold War in the early 1980s with the increase in arms production within the U.S. and with negotiations with Gorbachev leading to START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks). Reagan ranks as one of the most admired presidents alongside Kennedy and passed away at the age of 93 from Alzheimer’s disease in June of 2004. Glasnost Was a policy known for ‘openness’ created by Mikhail Gorbachev after assuming presidency in the Soviet Union in 1985. The main idea of the policy was to ensure that every principle is of the regime would open to public scrutiny. This was sign of ‘democratization’ in the USSR allowing more people to become involved in the politics and the Communist Party. Gorbachev (1931-present) Mikhail Gorbachev was the leader of the USSR from 1985 to 1991. He was known as the first political leader to end the long established Communist rule and introduced policies such as perestroika and glasnost to help improve the Soviet economy and foreign relations. His efforts in policies led to the establishment of START, the breakup of the Soviet Red Army and to his survival from a conservative Communist Party. He eventually resigned in 1991. | Reagan | Politics
19: Economy | Glasnost Was a policy known for ‘openness’ created by Mikhail Gorbachev after assuming presidency in the Soviet Union in 1985. The main idea of the policy was to ensure that every principle is of the regime would open to public scrutiny. This was sign of ‘democratization’ in the USSR allowing more people to become involved in the politics and the Communist Party. Soviet Union Economy -Needed to concentrate on better Western relations to improve standard of living for USSR. -Needed to switch economic production of armaments to consumer goods and import more Western technology. -Under the terms of Brezhnev, the Soviet concentrated more on foreign policies. -Many agriculture workers lived in poverty at the time. -Lacking grain led o importation from the U.S.
20: -Due to lack of consumer spreading from the period of the Cold War, the Soviets went into a period of crisis in within the film industry. -Once gaining better international relations the USSR was then introduced to the Internet in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. -As Brezhnev took power the influence of popular American culture began to spread East to the USSR , for example in the fashion of blue jeans. | Cinema Bankrupt! | Culture
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