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Emerson's The Conduct of Life: Culture

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FC: The Conduct of Life by Ralph Waldo Emerson Mixbook by Meg Splain | The Conduct of Life by Ralph Waldo Emerson Mixbook by Meg Splain

1: The word of ambition at the present day is Culture. Whilst all the world is in pursuit of power, and of wealth as a means of power, culture corrects the theory of success. A man is a prisoner of his power.

2: Our efficiency depends so much on our concentration, that Nature usually in the instances where a marked man is sent into the world, overloads him with bias, sacrificing his symmetry to his working power.

3: But worse than harping on one string, Nature has secured individualism, by giving the private person a high conceit of his weight in the system. The pest of society is egoists.

4: The man runs round a ring formed by his own talent, falls into an admiration of it, and loses relation to the world.

5: Beware of the man who says, "I am on the eve of a revelation." It is speedily punished, inasmuch as this habit invites men to humor it, and by treating the patient tenderly, to shut him up in a narrower selfism, and exclude him from the great world of God's cheerful fallible men and women. | Beware of the man who says, "I am on the eve of a revelation." It is speedily punished, inasmuch as this habit invites men to humor it, and by treating the patient tenderly, to shut him up in a narrower selfism, and exclude him from the great world of God's cheerful fallible men and women.

6: So egotism has its root in the cardinal necessity by which each individual persists to be what he is.

7: This individuality is not only not inconsistent with culture, but is the basis of it. Every valuable nature is there in its own right, and the student we speak to must have a motherwit invincible by his culture, which uses all books, arts, facilities, and elegancies of intercourse, but is never subdued and lost in them. He only is a well-made man who has a good determination. And the end of culture is not to destroy this, God forbid! but to train away all impediment and mixture, and leave nothing but pure power. Our student must have a style and determination, and be a master in his own specialty.

8: In Boston, the question of life is the names of some eight or ten men.

9: Life is very narrow. Bring any club or company of intelligent men together again after ten years, and if the presence of some penetrating and calming genius could dispose them to frankness, what a confession of insanities would come up! The "causes" to which we have sacrificed, Tariff or Democracy, Whigism or Abolition, Temperance or Socialism, would show like roots of bitterness and dragons of wrath: and our talents are as mischievous as if each had been seized upon by some bird of prey, which had whisked him away from fortune, from truth, from the dear society of the poets, some zeal, some bias, and only when he was now gray and nerveless, was it relaxing its claws, and he awaking to sober perceptions.

10: Culture redresses his balance, puts him among his equals and superiors, revives the delicious sense of sympathy, and warns him of the dangers of solitude and repulsion.

11: No performance is worth loss of geniality. 'Tis a cruel price we pay for certain fancy goods called fine arts and philosophy.

12: Nature is reckless of the individual. When she has points to carry, she carries them. To wade in marshes and sea-margins is the destiny of certain birds, and they are so accurately made for this, that they are imprisoned in those places. Each animal out of its habitat would starve. To the physician, each man, each woman, is an amplification of one organ. A soldier, a locksmith, a bank-clerk, and a dancer could not exchange functions. And thus we are victims of adaptation.

13: The antidotes against this organic egotism, are, the range and variety of attractions, as gained by acquaintance with the world, with men of merit, with classes of society, with travel, with eminent persons, and with the high resources of philosophy, art, and religion: books, travel, society, solitude

14: The hardiest skeptic who has seen a horse broken, a pointer trained, or, who has visited a menagerie, or the exhibition of the Industrious Fleas, will not deny the validity of education.

15: A boy," says Plato, "is the most vicious of all wild beasts."

16: ...Gascoigne says, "a boy is better unborn than untaught."

17: A great part of courage is the courage of having done the thing before. And, in all human action, those faculties will be strong which are used.

18: Let us make our education brave and preventive. Politics is an after-work, a poor patching. We are always a little late. The evil is done, the law is passed, and we begin the up-hill agitation for repeal of that of which we ought to have prevented the enacting. We shall one day learn to supersede politics by education. What we call our root-and-branch reforms of slavery, war, gambling, intemperance, is only medicating the symptoms. We must begin higher up, namely, in Education.

19: But it is conceded that much of our training fails of effect; that all success is hazardous and rare; that a large part of our cost and pains is thrown away.

20: Books, as containing the finest records of human wit, must always enter into our notion of culture.

21: Their opinion has weight, because they had means of knowing the opposite opinion. We look that a great man should be a good reader, or, in proportion to the spontaneous power should be the assimilating power.

23: But books are good only as far as a boy is ready for them. He sometimes gets ready very slowly. You send your child to the schoolmaster, but 'tis the schoolboys who educate him. You send him to the Latin class, but much of his tuition comes, on his way to school, from the shop-windows. You like the strict rules and the long terms; and he finds his best leading in a by-way of his own, and refuses any companions but of his choosing. He hates the grammar and Gradus, and loves guns, fishing-rods, horses, and boats. Well, the boy is right; and you are not fit to direct his bringing up, if your theory leaves out his gymnastic training. Archery, cricket, gun and fishing-rod, horse and boat, are all educators, liberalizers; and so are dancing, dress, and the street-talk; and,— provided only the boy has resources, and is of a noble and ingenuous strain,--these will not serve him less than the books.

24: Besides, the gun, fishing-rod, boat, and horse, constitute, among all who use them, secret freemasonries. They are as if they belonged to one club.

25: Each class fixes its eyes on the advantages it has not; the refined, on rude strength; the democrat, on birth and breeding. One of the benefits of a college education is, to show the boy its little avail.

26: For the most part, only the light characters travel. Who are you that have no task to keep you at home?

27: I think, there is a restlessness in our people, which argues want of character.

28: He that does not fill a place at home, cannot abroad. He only goes there to hide his insignificance in a larger crowd.

29: And let him go where he will, he can only find so much beauty or worth as he carries.

30: Of course, for some men, travel may be useful. Naturalists, discoverers, and sailors are born.

31: And if the man is of a light and social turn, and Nature has aimed to make a legged and winged creature, framed for locomotion, we must follow her hint, and furnish him with that breeding which gives currency, as sedulously as with that which gives worth. But let us not be pedantic, but allow to travel its full effect.

32: Akin to the benefit of foreign travel, the aesthetic value of railroads is to unite the advantages of town and country life, neither of which we can spare.

33: Moreover, there is in every constitution a certain solstice, when the stars stand still in our inward firmament, and when there is required some foreign force, some diversion or alterative to prevent stagnation. And, as a medical remedy, travel seems one of the best.

34: In the country, he can find solitude and reading, manly labor, cheap living, and his old shoes; moors for game, hills for geology, and groves for devotion.

35: Cities give us collision. 'Tis said, London and New York take the nonsense out of a man. A great part of our education is sympathetic and social.

37: The best bribe which London offers to-day to the imagination, is, that, in such a vast variety of people and conditions, one can believe there is room for persons of romantic character to exist, and that the poet, the mystic, and the hero may hope to confront their counterparts. I wish cities could teach their best lesson,--of quiet manners. It is the foible especially of American youth,--pretension. The mark of the man of the world is absence of pretension. He does not make a speech; he takes a low business-tone, avoids all brag, is nobody, dresses plainly, promises not at all, performs much, speaks in monosyllables, hugs his fact

38: To be sure, in old, dense countries, among a million of good coats, a fine coat comes to be no distinction, and you find humorists.

39: Whilst we want cities as the centres where the best things are found, cities degrade us by magnifying trifles.

40: You say the gods ought to respect a life whose objects are their own; but in cities they have betrayed you to a cloud of insignificant annoyances.

41: Suffer them once to begin the enumeration of their infirmities, and the sun will go down on the unfinished tale. Let these triflers put us out of conceit with petty comforts. To a man at work, the frost is but a color: the rain, the wind, he forgot them when he came in. Let us learn to live coarsely, dress plainly, and lie hard.

42: A man in pursuit of greatness feels no little wants.

43: There is a great deal of self-denial and manliness in poor and middle-class houses, in town and country, that has not got into literature, and never will, but that keeps the earth sweet; that saves on superfluities, and spends on essentials; that goes rusty, and educates the boy; that sells the horse, but builds the school; works early and late, takes two looms in the factory, three looms, six looms, but pays off the mortgage on the paternal farm, and then goes back cheerfully to work again.

44: We can ill spare the commanding social benefits of cities; they must be used; yet cautiously, and haughtily,--and will yield their best values to him who best can do without them. Keep the town for occasions, but the habits should be formed to retirement.

45: The high advantage of university-life is often the mere mechanical one, I may call it, of a separate chamber and fire,--which parents will allow the boy without hesitation at Cambridge, but do not think needful at home.

46: Solitude takes off the pressure of present importunities that more catholic and humane relations may appear. The saint and poet seek privacy to ends the most public and universal: and it is the secret of culture, to interest the man more in his public, than in his private quality.

47: The poet, as a craftsman, is only interested in the praise accorded to him, and not in the censure, though it be just....As soon as he sides with his critic against himself, with joy, he is a cultivated man.

48: We only vary the phrase, not the doctrine, when we say, that culture opens the sense of beauty. A man is a beggar who only lives to the useful, and, however he may serve as a pin or rivet in the social machine, cannot be said to have arrived at self-possession.

49: A cheerful, intelligent face is the end of culture, and success enough. For it indicates the purpose of Nature and wisdom attained.

50: When our higher faculties are in activity, we are domesticated, and awkwardness and discomfort give place to natural and agreeable movements.

51: But, over all, culture must reinforce from higher influx the empirical skills of eloquence, or of politics, or of trade, and the useful arts. There is a certain loftiness of thought and power to marshal and adjust particulars, which can only come from an insight of their whole connection.

52: But there are higher secrets of culture, which are not for the apprentices, but for proficients.These are lessons only for the brave. We must know our friends under ugly masks. The calamities are our friends.

53: But the wiser God says, Take the shame, the poverty, and the penal solitude, that belong to truth-speaking. Try the rough water as well as the smooth. Rough water can teach lessons worth knowing. When the state is unquiet, personal qualities are more than ever decisive. Fear not a revolution which will constrain you to live five years in one. Don't be so tender at making an enemy now and then. Be willing to go to Coventry sometimes, and let the populace bestow on you their coldest contempts. The finished man of the world must eat of every apple once. He must hold his hatreds also at arm's length, and not remember spite. He has neither friends nor enemies, but values men only as channels of power.

54: He who aims high, must dread an easy home and popular manners.

55: If there is any great and good thing in store for you, it will not come at the first or the second call, nor in the shape of fashion, ease, and city drawing-rooms. Popularity is for dolls.

56: The longer we live, the more we must endure the elementary existence of men and women; and every brave heart must treat society as a child, and never allow it to dictate.

57: The measure of a master is his success in bringing all men round to his opinion twenty years later.

58: I find, too, that the chance for appreciation is much increased by being the son of an appreciator, and that these boys who now grow up are caught not only years too late, but two or three births too late, to make the best scholars.

59: The fossil strata show us that Nature began with rudimental forms, and rose to the more complex, as fast as the earth was fit for their dwelling-place; and that the lower perish, as the higher appear.

60: Half-engaged in the soil, pawing to get free, man needs all the music that can be brought to disengage him.

61: The age of the quadruped is to go out,--the age of the brain and of the heart is to come in. The time will come when the evil forms we have known can no more be organized.

62: And if one shall read the future of the race hinted in the organic effort of Nature to mount and meliorate, and the corresponding impulse to the Better in the human being, we shall dare affirm that there is nothing he will not overcome and convert, until at last culture shall absorb the chaos and gehenna. He will convert the Furies into Muses, and the hells into benefit.

63: The End.

64: Picture Credits Cover: http://www.science.uva.nl/~seop/archives/spr2004/entries/emerson/Emerson-lg.jpg 1. http://blogs.zdnet.com/projectfailures/images/defining-it-project-success.jpg 2. http://blogs.zdnet.com/projectfailures/images/defining-it-project-success.jpg 3. http://egoist.blogspot.com/EGO376.gif 4. http://image.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Travel/Pix/pictures/2007/04/23/treadmill460.gif 5. http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&hl=en&q=intellectual 6. http://lib.colostate.edu/research/agbib/CSUarch_GW_sugar-beet-root-system2.jpg 7. http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Determination-Runner-Print-C10095072.jpeg 8. http://www.usatourist.com/photos/massachusetts/boston3b.jpg

65: 9. http://flickr.com/photos/dcdead/2315829853/ 10. http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Balance-Print-C10293410.jpeg 11.http://finearts.swu.edu/images/fine-arts_art-new07.jpg 12. http://flickr.com/photos/lesec/472319844/ 13. https://mrmc-www.army.mil/images/OCTravel.gif 14. http://www.campusaccess.com/images/education.jpg 15. http://flickr.com/photos/photoprofiler/869076654/ 16. http://www.dorisday.net/assets/images/doris-day-teacher's-pet3.jpg 17. http://www.exw6sxq.com/sparky/images/courage.jpg 18. http://www.fhsu.edu/~zhrepic/Teaching/GenEducation/nonverbcom/nonverbcom_files/image055.jpg 19. http://www.usnavy.vt.edu/RecentEvents/2004%20Summer%20Cruise/Bowden%20OCS.JPG 20. http://flickr.com/photos/erikvanhannen/2143007559/ 21. http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/BRGPOD/147257~The-Reader-1856-Posters.jpg 22. http://flickr.com/photos/altus/1407559890/

66: 24. http://www.kilmerhouse.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/laurel-club-wwi-soldiers.jpg 25. http://www.idiomsbykids.com/taylor/mrtaylor/class20022003/idioms/idioms2003/The%20Grass%20Is%20Greener%20On%20The%20other%20side.jpg 26. http://www.ncl-coll.ac.uk/images/travel.jpg 27. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://bp2.blogger.com/_fhvrGBeVQKI/R-MJI85-CfI/AAAAAAAAAmA/hyL91QkofwY/s400/Restlessness.jpg&imgrefurl=http://wannabeadman.blogspot.com/2008/03/restlessness.html&h=266&w=400&sz=20&hl=en&start=8&sig2=o4E5biAH6_EvCGR3YP7PXA&um=1&tbnid=Cr0n7YKgb-PBEM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=124&ei=YQJsSN_mJIyWeYCi8d8L&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drestlessness%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4DKUS_enUS260US263%26sa%3DN 28. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/us/politics/19campaign.html?_r=1&oref=slogin 29. http://images.despair.com/products/demotivators/worth.jpg

67: 30. http://www.folkwales.org.uk/images/Shifty%20Sailors.jpg 31. http://www.jrcompton.com/photos/The_Birds/J/Jan_07/JR60627-hopping-corm-c.jpg 32. http://www.camp5museum.org/media/photos1/train1.jpg 33. http://www.schwa.de/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/boredom.jpg 34. http://www.aaartdenver.com/mall/Burton_Dye_Country_Living.jpg 35. http://www.gosammy.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/04/collision1440-900.jpg 36. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4b/442px_-_London_Lead_Image.jpg/280px-442px_-_London_Lead_Image.jpg 38. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/gilded/jb_gilded_subj_e.jpg 39. http://bp1.blogger.com/_4s5pmFL_ZlQ/R8rdLBdFKFI/AAAAAAAAANQ/LHRlbFwo2PI/s1600-h/INSIGNIFICANCE+MOTIVATIONALPOSTERS.jpg

68: 40. http://flickr.com/photos/valduur/2624406865/ 41. http://chamorrobible.org/images/photos/gpw-200702-48-NASA-STS111-321-24-space-sunset-20020618-Sahara-Desert-medium.jpg 42. http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/ARTPUB/CRB002034_36_24~Greatness-Posters.jpg 43. http://www.isleofskye.net/drynochhouse/fromloch.jpg 44. http://www.commitment.es/mba2008/wp-content/uploads/2006/12/fabulous%20social%20life.PNG 45. http://www.ba-inc.com/images/educational/colleges/desales.jpg 46. http://www.camargue-nature.co.uk/Images/Bch_Bduc_solitude.jpg 47. http://images.salon.com/ent/feature/1999/08/18/critic/critic.gif 48. http://www.getrivet.com/images/rivet_high.jpg 49. http://www.medaloffreedom.com/JohnWisdom.jpg 50. http://www.nianow.com/images/technique.jpg 51. http://www.suntrek.org/images/stills/sun%20earth%20connection/Sun%20Earth%20magnetic%20connection.jpg 52. http://flickr.com/photos/bepster/504140673/

69: 53. http://www.geocities.com/uss_skagit/shippix/lcvp.jpg 54. http://www.letsgodigital.org/images/artikelen/39/mount-everest.jpg 55. http://z.about.com/d/toys/1/0/Y/B/BlingDolls.jpg 56. http://www.kcfamilylawyer.com/child_custody&support/images/child_custodypic1.jpg 57. http://www.uweb.ucsb.edu/~lain/ghandi2.jpg 58. http://internal.usn.org/enews/e-news/2007enews/092707/naturalist.jpg 59. http://www.prism.gatech.edu/~gh19/b1510/dickinso.jpg 60. http://img86.imageshack.us/img86/2469/music2vy4.jpg 61. http://www.gonemovies.com/WWW/MyWebFilms/Drama/WizardTinManClose.jpg http://atangledweb.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/scarecrow_oz.gif 62. http://www.kenmusgrave.com/hell2.jpg

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