FC: River Valley Civilizations | Georgia Belk Mrs. Bartlett
1: Table Of Contents | Pages 2-5: Mesopotamia Pages 6-9: Egypt Pages 10-13: Indus Valley Pages 14-17: China
3: 1. The government in Mesopotamia is mainly controlled by religions. For example, the priests listened to the gods and then told the people what they said. | 2. The Sumerians, who lived in Mesopotamia, created a system of writing called Cuneiform. The writing consisted of wedge-shaped symbols that meant different things. | 3. Mesopotamia lies mainly between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and it is located in present day Iraq. | 4. Many people in Mesopotamia are polytheistic, which means believing in many gods. These people believed that different gods controlled the various forces in nature, and to make them happy, they would build ziggurats and offer rich sacrifices.
4: 5. In Mesopotamia, the Sumerians invented the wheel, sail, and plow to make transportation and farming easier. | 6. Mesopotamia's social classes were like many social classes around the world. Kings and priests were first, the wealthy merchants were next, then the people who worked in fields and workshops, and lastly, the slaves. | 7. The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were great craftsmen by making jewelry of gold, fancy chairs, and unglazed vases. They were also really good at creating mosiacs in intricate patterns by using little pieces of painted clay.
5: 9. The people from Mesopotamia made houses out of tall reeds staked in the ground. Once they were staked, the tops were tied together and covered with matting. | 10. Mesopotamia used music not only for religious ceremonies, but for understanding and communicating with the gods. The people used music this way because the gods were convinced as being musical in their basic nature. | 8. In Mesopotamia, school was only allowed for boys to attend. The teachers were very strict and if the students messed up, they would get whipped or severly punished.
7: 1. The government in Egypt was ruled by a pharaoh who was seen as a god, which is known as theocracy. | 2. Mummification, building pyramids for pharaohs, and making papyrus were some of the technology invented in Egypt. | 3. In Egypt, the Nile river provides fertile land to produce silt, deserts surround it, and the climate is very hot and dry.
8: 4. Like the Mesopotamians, Egyptians were polytheistic and worshiped more than 2000 gods. They built huge temples to honor the gods and goddesses. | 5. In Egypt, the people created the writing system called hieroglyphics which developed major growth of Egyptian civilization. | 6. Egyptian society formed a pyramid by the royal family standing on top, then the wealthy landowners, next stood the merchants, and peasants stood last.
9: 7. Egyptians invented the art of painting on plaster and they were also the first people to use cement. | 8. In Egypt, people would play a game similar to bowling by setting up large stones as pins and knocking them over with smaller stones. | 9. The last remaining ancient wonder of the world are the pyramids of Egypt. They were given an 'honorary status' in the list of 'Wonders of the World.' | 10. The 24-hour division of the day and the 365 days calender have been known to have been invented by Egyptians.
10: Indus Valley
11: 1. The people of Indus built extensive and modern-looking plumbing systems because they needed to get rid of waste and obtain clean water. | 2. Indus lies between the Indus and Ganges rivers, and this allows the people to have fertile soil for farming. Also, monsoons, which are called seasonal winds, dominate Indus's climate. | 3. The religion in Indus was believed that the culture was a theocracy, but there was no sign of a temple found yet. Priests most likely prayed for good harvests and safety from floods. Also, Indus was the beginning of Hindu culture.
12: 4. The Harrappn culture of Indus developed a written language, but it has been impossible to decipher. This language is found on stamps and seals made out of carved stone that was used for tools and pottery. | 5. The social classes in Indus were like many other civilizations. The upper class were priests and soldiers, the middle class were merchants and farmers, and the lower class were servants and laborers. | 6. The Indus Valley's government was known to have had a central government because the lay out of the city was so much like all of the cities. The government is still somewhat a mystery.
13: 7. In Indus, the place value system and the decimal system were developed in 100 B.C. These systems were developed after creating the number system as well. | 8. The game of snakes and ladders was created by the poet Gyander of Indus in the 13th century, and it was played with cowrie shells and dices. | 9. In the Indus Valley, the people established Harrappn culture because of the many archaeological discoveries made during that time. | 10. The greatest work of art in the Indus Valley Civilization were the seals. They were mostly rectangular and made out of clay, and intricate pictures were engraved on them.
15: 1. In China, the Mandate of Heaven became central to the view of government and the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties were described as the dynastic cycle. | 2. Roads and canals were built, coin money was introduced, and blast furnaces were developed to make life easier in China. These are just a few examples of the technology created by the people of China. | 3. China lies between the Yellow(Huang He) and Yangtze rivers, and these rivers provide loess, which is fertile soil, to make farming easier. Also, the Himalayas are to the south, and the Gobi Desert is to the north.
16: 4. The Chinese people believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to the family. The family was closely linked to religion, but the Chinese did not thank that the spirits were mighty gods. | 5. The Chinese system of writing used symbols and the symbols stood for one syllable or unit of language. The writing had a major advantage and it was that the language was easy to learn; therefore, it helped unify a large and diverse land and made control much easier. | 6. China's social classes were much different from other civilizations. They had only two classes. The upper class were the nobles and the lower class were the peasants.
17: 7. Most of the people in China worshiped a natural force because they believed that it was the power behind natural disasters. | 8. China holds one of the eight wonders of the world called The Great Wall of China. It was built by Emperor Tsu and it remains among the world's most thought-provoking masterpiece still in existence. | 9. Cats were a very popular pet in China and were domesticated as early as the Shing dynasty. The emperor Tsu was very interested in the Siamese cats, and they began to breed out-of-control in Mongolia. | 10. In China, rice wine was often used in the ceremonies and ritual sacrifices. Archaeologists found jars of rice wine from an ancient tomb in 2003 to discover what the wine was used for.