S: Global Climate Change Scrapbook
BC: This was my plane that took me back to Georgia! Now, when I look at the atmosphere, I'll know the different layers! | My seat...you can't see me though!
FC: Global Climate Change Summer Conference for U.S Governors | By: Willa Wang 5th period
1: Contents | Section 1: Ozone Depletion | Section 2: Causes of Global Climate Change | Section 3: Effects of Global Climate Change | Section 4: Solutions to Climate Change
2: Section 1: Ozone Depletion
3: I haven't learned this since high school... Layers of the Atmosphere: Troposphere: (extends to about 20 km). It is the layer closest to the Earth. Temperature decreases with altitude. Weather occurs in this layer. Stratosphere: (extends 20-50 km) Temperature increases with altitude due to UV rays. The ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs UV-B radiation. Mesosphere: (extends 50-90 km) Temperature decreases with height. Meteors burn in this layer. Thermosphere: (extends 90-600 km.) Temperature increases with height due to the UV and X-ray radiation from the sun It includes the ionosphere, where the Aurora borealis occurs! Exosphere: (extends from top of thermosphere to 1000 km.) Atoms and molecules escape into space. (When I flew in to the conference, I was in the troposphere!)
4: In 1987, signatory nations ratified this international treaty to restrict production of CFCs (chloroflurocarbons) to stop stratosphereic ozone depletion. These nations agreed to cut CFC production by half. Today, 191 nations agree to the Montreal Protocol. Five follow up agreements ensured the strength of the treaty. These agreements set time tables for plans to phase out ozone depleting chemicals. The Montreal Protocol follows an adaptive management approach in which strategies can be altered to new scientific data, technological advances, or economic figures. Since the Montreal Protocol has been signed, ozone depleting compounds have fallen by 95%. New, non-ozone depleting chemicals have also been developed to be used in industry. | Montreal Protocol
5: I got to read this! | This was such a success in the international community...I wonder if I could implement a plan like this in my state!
6: Ground Level Ozone | Although Ozone (O3) is the same molecularly near the ground and in the stratosphere, its effects are diverse. Ground level/tropospheric ozone is a secondary pollutant. It forms when NOx and VOCs react in the presence of sunlight. Tropospheric O3 causes respiratory problems because the free oxygen molecule that is easily released can damage tissue. It also leads to photochemical smog, affecting eye/nose/throat irritations, infrastructure damage, and chronic lung diseases. Environmentally, tropospheric ozone affects processes that producers use to make food, damages leaves of plants, and reduces forest growth and crop yields.
7: Stratospheric Ozone | Ozone in the stratosphere is extremely important to the well being of life on Earth. In the stratosphere, the ozone (in the ozone layer) absorbs UV-B rays, which causes skin cancer. The ozone layer protects life on Earth's surface from the damaging effects of UV radiation. (UV rays cause genetic mutations and cancer).
8: Solutions to Ground Level Ozone | Because ground level ozone is a secondary pollutant, it does not have a direct, point source. To reduce tropospheric ozone, one should reduce the emissions of NOx and VOCs, compounds that react in the atmosphere to form ozone. NOx can be reduced by the decreased combustion of fossil fuels in cars. Cleaner energy sources and mass transportation can reduce NOx emissions. Legislators should impose limits on VOCs in products to prevent excess VOCs in the atmosphere.
9: Solutions to the Ozone Hole | On the international level, the Montreal Protocol, which phased out CFCs, reduced the ozone hole. CFCs have been banned in economically developed countries. Safe alternatives should be implemented. Consumers should use safe refrigerants and other chemicals that do not have ozone depleting properties. Rocket and high altitude flights should be minimized to prevent water deposition in the stratosphere.
10: Wow, the results of the international initiative have been amazing! The ozone is regenerating!
11: Section 2: Causes of Global Climate Change
12: Greenhouse Gases | Greenhouse gases are gases that absorb infrared radiation very effectively. These include: -Water Vapor -Carbon dioxide -Methane -Nitrous oxide -Ozone Greenhouse gases arise from human activities- combustion, chemical manufacturing plants, feedlots, and synthetic fertilizers.
14: The Greenhouse Effect | After learning about the greenhouse gases, we learned about the greenhouse effect. In this case, Earth's atmosphere acts as a greenhouse! The greenhouse effect is the warming of Earth's surface and atmosphere caused by the energy emitted by greenhouse gases. This phenomenon occurs naturally, as greenhouse gases have been in the atmosphere for billions of years. The recent influx of greenhouse gases have allowed the Earth to trap more infrared radiation, causing a rise in temperature.
16: EPA Regulated Air Pollutants | The EPA regulates six criteria pollutants that pose great threats to human health: -CO: Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas produced mainly by incomplete combustion of fuel in cars. It binds to hemoglobin in RBC and prevents binding of oxygen. -SO2: Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, strong smelling gas resulting from the combustion of coal for energy. It can lead to sulfuric acid deposition. -NOx: Nitrogen oxides form when nitrogen and oxygen result from combustion. It can lead to acid deposition. -Tropospheric ozone: This is a secondary pollutant that results from reactions among sunlight, VOCs, NOx. It causes smog and respiratory problems. It is a colorless gas.
17: -Particulate matter (PM): particulates are solid or liquid particles in the atmosphere, such as soot or dust. The smaller the particles, the more hazardous they are, as they are unable to be dislodged from respiratory tissues. -Lead: Lead is a heavy metal that bioaccumulates in organisms. A major source of lead is leaded gasoline, which was phased out in 1970s. *Toxic air pollutants are substances that cause adverse health, physiological, and developmental effects in humans. These are regulated under the Clean Air Act, but are not as extensively regulated as the six major pollutants mentioned above. Until this conference, I never realized how many toxic pollutants could be found in our daily lives!
18: El Nino | El Nino occurs when air pressure increases in the western Pacific and decreases in the eastern Pacific, causing strong trade winds to weaken and water to flow eastward instead of westward. During El Nino, which occurs every 3 to7 years, the upwelling along South America are shut down, removing the nutrients that support marine life. In typically dry areas (Southern California), heavy precipitation occurs during El Nino episodes. Conversely, in typically wet areas, droughts and fires occur. Warmer sea temperatures cannot be tolerated by some fish or plankton. Lower sea levels also expose fragile coral reefs. Droughts also lead to crop failure, and more humid weather leads to increased mosquitoes and transmission of malaria. The increased severity of storms also destroys inland habitats.
20: La Nina | La Nina is the opposite of El Nino. When there are cooler sea temperatures, higher atmospheric pressures, and stronger trade winds, cold surface waters extend farther west (high pressure system in the east, low pressure system in the west). Increased upwellings occur in the South American range, proliferating marine life. During La Nina, areas that are typically wet receive even more precipitation, and areas that are typically dry are drier than normal. Again, heavy rainfall can cause flooding, destroying habitats and killing organisms that are not adapted to high precipitation levels. Exacerbated droughts can lead to crop failures.
22: Pros: 1. Coal is a cheap and affordable source of energy. 2. Coal is abundant and can be found in all continents. 3. Coal can be directly used and burned for energy. It is also dependable. 4. Compared to natural gas and oil, coal requires less capital investment in mining and power plants. 5. Coal is easily transported. 6. Coal has a large energy potential. 7. Coal is versatile; it can be used in solid and liquid forms.
23: Cons: 1. Coal contains many impurities, such as sulfur and mercury. When burned, sulfur forms sulfates in the atmosphere and causes acid rain. Mercury, a neurotoxin, deposits on the lithosphere and in waters and can bioaccumulate in organisms. 2. Coal is a nonrenewable energy source so it is not sustainable. 3. Coal releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. CO2 is a greenhouse gas, which traps infrared radiation, and thus leads to global climate change. 4. Coal mining, both surface and subsurface, degrades the environment. Surface mining is not aesthetically pleasing and destroys the habitat and soil. Subsurface mining can lead to acidity in the neighboring waters. 5. Coal mining is dangerous to the health of workers (black lung disease).
24: Pros: 1. Oil is a stable and powerful energy source. 2. It exists in the liquid form and is easily transported across regions. 3. Large amounts of electricity can be generated (relatively high EROI ratio). 4. OIl has a high heating value. 5. Oil is cleaner to burn than coal, and an efficient oil based fuel station can be built almost anywhere. | Cons: 1. Oil is a nonrenewable energy source, and reservoirs are quickly being depleted. 2. Oil spills damage habitats and organisms. (Birds are coated with oil.) 3. Combustion of oil releases greenhouse gases, such as CO2, which contribute to global warming. (CO2 traps heat in Earth.) 4. Incomplete combustion of oil emits Carbon monoxide, a criteria pollutant. 5. Oil drilling and refining requires a lot of capital, water, and energy. 6. Reliance on foreign oil leads to national dependency.
25: Pros: 1. Out of the three mentioned, natural gas is the cleanest to burn. It does not emit particulate matter or sulfur dioxide. 2. Natural gas does not pollute underground or ground water when burned either. 3. Natural gas is versatile and can be shipped long distance in refrigerated tankers. | Cons: 1. Natural gas in non renewable and is only expected to last for the next 60 years. 2. Natural gas releases methane, a greenhouse gas. Increases in methane alter the climate of Earth. 3. Natural gas must be liquified (LNG) in order to be transported. This process requires much energy and increases the risk of explosion. 4. Leaks can easily cause explosions. 5. Natural gas is not as efficient in cars as oil is. 6. The infrastructure (pipelines) needed to extract natural gas is costly and disrupts ecosystems, as the ground must be drilled. Pipelines also increase the risk of leaks and explosions.
26: Here's a photo of one of the speakers talking about the pros and cons of the major nonrenewable energy sources!
27: Section 3: Effects of Global Climate Change
28: Climate Change as Positive Feedback Loops: Climate Change is the change in Earth's global climate patterns; it affects other events on Earth, which can lead to positive feedback cycles. -As Earth's temperature increases, ice caps melt. With the melting of ice caps, albedo (reflectivity of radiation) is reduced, increasing absorption of heat and exacerbating climate change. Increased temperature causes more ice to melt. -As oceans become warmer due to global warming, they cannot hold as much carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, CO2 is released back into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas, trapping more heat on Earth and warming the oceans even more. -As Earth's climate increases, soil moisture decreases, leading to droughts and fires. Fires release CO2 back into the atmosphere, where it traps more heat and changes the climate. The resulting increases causes the soil to become even drier and causes more fires.
30: Industrial Smog Known as gray air smog, industrial smog is formed when coal or oil is partially combusted. The major components of industrial smog are soot, particulate matter, and other contaminants (such as sulfur dioxide and mercury), which give it a grayish color. Examples of industrial smog that enveloped entire cities include the smog in London in 1952 and the 1948 smog event in Donora, Pennsylvania. | London 1952 Smog Event | Donora Smog 1948
32: Photochemical Smog Known as brown-air smog, photochemical smog is formed through light driven chemical reactions of primary pollutants and normal atmospheric conditions that produce over 100 chemicals. Large amounts of NOx (released from combustion of cars) and VOCs react in the presence of sunlight to form ozone and other chemicals. Sunny, windless, and hot days are the ideal conditions for photochemical smog, as there is no wind to dissipate the pollutants from cars but plenty of sunlight to catalyze reactions. Examples of photochemical smog can be found in Mexico City, Athens, and Los Angeles, among other urban cities, that have the climate and topography (low lying regions surrounded by mountains) suited to this smog. | Los Angeles | Mexico City
33: Warmer days sure will cause an increase in photochemical smog, as there is more sun! I'm glad I'm not the governor of California!
34: Temperature Changes According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), Earth's surface temperature increased by 0.74 C from 1906-2005. Earth is expected to increase 1.8-4.0 C, depending on global emissions. Sea surface temperatures have also been rising. The number of hot days and heat waves have increased. Temperature changes are greatest in the Arctic, as the melting ice sheets show. The melting of ice is disastrous for the habitat of the polar bear and other animals. This temperature increase is thought to occur due to greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2 and N2O, from the combustion of cars.
35: Temperature changes would alter ecosystems. As already shown, some animals (polar bears) have lost their habitat. Many specialist organisms, such as the Monteverde Toad, cannot tolerate increased temperature and may go extinct. Increased temperature would increase sea surface temperatures, leading to more powerful hurricanes.
36: Precipitation Changes Precipitation patterns have changed, depending on the location. In typically dry regions (Sahel and Southwest U.S), droughts have become more frequent and severe. In other dry and humid regions, precipitation has increased, leading to flooding in areas such as Czechoslovakia. (In 2002, a flood caused over $2 billion in damages.) The trend shows that precipitation will increase at high latitudes and decrease in low/middle latitudes, causing extremities. The differences in precipitation will exacerbate water shortages. Moreover, increased flooding and droughts will lead to societal costs, as countries have to spend money for infrastructural and agricultural damages. The ecosystems and species will be adversely affected by the change in precipitation. Some organisms may not be able to tolerate the new dryness or moisture.
38: Sea Level Changes: Sea levels have risen due to the melting of glaciers and thermal expansion (warmer waters expand). Seas rose by 1.8mm/year from 1961-2003 and 3.1 mm/year from 1993-2006. The increase in sea level is obvious in the case of the Maldives, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean. The sea level rose 2.5 mm/year in the 1990s, encroaching on the limited lands of the island. As sea levels rise, the Maldives are literally being submerged.
39: Effects of rising sea levels would adversely affect low lying regions (such as the Maldives). These people would be displaced and have to migrate to other nations, such as New Zealand. With a rise in sea levels, salt water intrudes in fresh water wells, contaminating groundwater and soils. Coral reefs, with their abundant biodiversity and structure and economic importance (tourism), will be damaged by rising sea levels, which change the sunlight intensity and salt water content.
40: Changes in Global Ice Global ice has decreased in the past decades. Only 27 of 150 glaciers in Glacier National Park in Montana remain. Major glaciers have lost 9.6 m in vertical thickness since 1980. Also, the Greenland ice sheet and Atlantic ice shelves have melted. These examples bolster the fact that global ice is reducing due to global climate change. | As ice melts, risk of ice dams bursting increases. This decreases water supplies to people in regions supplied by glacial water. Also, ice melting have increased the sea levels.
41: Changes in Biota: Changes in organisms and ecosystems are effects of global climate change. As temperature increases, organisms have shifted upwards to maintain their previous temperatures. Some species (an estimated 20-30%) will not be able to adjust and may go extinct. Plants may not be able to shift distribution fast enough. Seasonal timings of migrations, hatchings, and matings have occurred earlier due to global climate change. However, the altered patterns do not always coincide: For instance, as plants grow earlier due to warmer temperatures, the caterpillars that consume the plants proliferate earlier as well. However, a type of bird known as the great tit that feeds on caterpillars does not breed earlier. Because the hatching times of the great tit and caterpillars are no longer synchronized, the great tit population is declining due to loss of food.
42: Proxy Indicators: | Ice cores preserve tiny bubbles of atmosphere, which can show the atmospheric composition, greenhouse gases, temperature trends, snowfall, and solar activity during that time. Scientists now can look back on the climate of eight glacial ages! When I go on an Arctic cruise, I hope to drill or at least view an ice core and see all the differences in the bubbles! Tree cores: The rings of trees show the amount of precipitation in a given year and fire history. A wide ring means more growth and more precipitation, and a charred ring means more a fire occurred. During the conference, the speaker contrasted two rings, one from an arid region, another from a wet region. The differences were incredible...I wonder what my history my oak tree holds in my backyard? Ocean sediments are analyzed for oxygen content and soil structure (varve). These varves are influence by precipitation and summer temperature. Coral reefs are great indicators because corals take in isotopes and other trace elements, which show in the structure of the reefs. These elements can be analyzed to find the climate of the time period. Pollen: Annoying as it may be in the springtime, pollen depicts the plant life of a region at a particular time. Plants indicate the climate of a location -whether the area was hot or cold, dry or wet.
44: Section 4: Solutions to Climate Change
45: Kyoto Protocol -Like the Montreal Protocol, the Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement begun in 1997 in Japan. -The goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce 6 greenhouse gas emissions to levels below those of 1990 by 2008-2012(a 29% global cut). -The Kyoto Protocol targets and binds signatory developed nations; those who sign must fulfill their part- whether through emissions trading or reduction. -It took effect in 2005; Russia was the 127th nation to ratify it. -Despite good intentions, the Kyoto Protocol faces many controversies. The U.S, which has not ratified it, argues that the Kyoto Protocol is not fair because it does not require China or India, among developing nations, to reduce their emissions. -The Kyoto Protocol does not limit developing nations because, although they currently emit a large amount of greenhouse gases, they did not contribute to the current problem. -Industrialized nations also have more resources and technology to reduce their emissions. -As a governor, I believe we need to ratify the treaty to cut down on our greenhouse gas emissions (The U.S accounts for 25% of emissions!). Regardless of whether developing countries are mandated, the U.S should be a major player in the reduction of greenhouse gases.
46: Carbon Offsets So, all the policymakers here learned that not all solutions to global climate change have to be completely lifestyle changing... Carbon offsets are payments made to another entity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that one is unable or unwilling to make oneself. The goal is to achieve carbon neutrality. Many businesses, utilities, and schools are already doing this. For example, a factory could fund the planting of trees to offset the carbon produced through the burning of fossil fuels. However well intended carbon offsets may be, the money from carbon offsets do not always go to carbon reducing activities. One should not depend on these alone to reduce carbon emissions.
47: Renewable energy sources: There are so many different renewable alternatives to fossil fuels! however, each does have both pros and cons to it....
48: Wave energy harnesses the kinetic energy from the moving water of waves. Tidal energy harnesses the kinetic energy of water flow, created by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon. | Wave and Tidal Energy
49: Pros: 1. Wave and tidal energy do not emit pollutants (no SO2, NOx, CO, etc.) into the atmosphere. 2. Tides are reliable and provide a constant source of energy. 3. Once built, tidal/wave power plants are relatively free, with the exception of maintenance costs. It does not consume fuel and does not permanently consume any natural resource in the process. | Cons: 1.Wave/tidal energy plants often use dams, which causes silt buildup and impedes fish migrations. 2. Turbines can kill fish. 3. Tides are intermittent- occurring only twice a day, which reduces electricity output. 4. Waves occur at different strengths and times, according to location. Both tidal and wave energy are limited geographically. 5. The cost is high to build the facilities. To harness the wave energy from deep ocean sites and transmit it to electricity is even more costly. 6. The facilities required to install wave energy plants would damage the sea bed.
50: Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy results from the radioactive decay of elements in the Earth at high temperatures and pressures. This heat surfaces through magma and fissures in the Earth. Where this energy heats groundwater, natural eruptions of heated water and steam are sent up from below in geysers. Geothermal power plants use the steam and heated water underground to turn turbines to generate electricity.
51: Pros: 1. Geothermal energy emits less emissions compared to fossil fuels; one estimate says that each MW of geothermal power prevents 7 million kg of CO2 emissions annually. 2. Geothermal power plants do not require a vast area of land; they require the same land area as gas fired plants. 3. Geothermal ground source heat pumps (GSHPs)are already being used to heat U.S residences. Compared to conventional electric heating/cooling systems, these pumps reduce electricity usage by 25-65%. 4. Geothermal power plants do not need the transport of fossil fuels or hazardous waste. | Cons: 1. The initial drilling cost for geothermal power plants is high. 2. It may not be completely sustainable if power plants use the heated water more quickly than the groundwater is recharged. (The water runs out, and power plants must inject water into the ground for supply, increasing the cost.) 3. As Earth's crust moves, geothermal activity varies, so an area may not always have sufficient geothermal energy. 4. Geothermal energy is limited to the areas where the energy is. 5. Geothermal power plants can release gases, such as CO2, CH4, NH3, and H2S in water. These gases absorb infrared radiation in the atmosphere and contribute to increased global temperatures. 6. The salts and minerals in the water can corrode the equipment and pollute the air, increasing operating costs and reducing the quality of air.
52: Wind energy Wind energy harnesses the kinetic energy in wind and uses wind turbines (mechanical assemblies) to convert the kinetic energy into electrical energy.
53: Cons: 1. The blades in wind turbines kills birds and bats, altering migration patterns. 2. Aesthetically, wind turbines are not attractive. 3. Wind resources are not always near dense urban centers. To distribute energy to these centers, transmission networks would be needed, increasing the cost and reducing efficiency. 4. Wind is an intermittent resource and varies in time and location. 5. The initial and maintenance costs of wind energy are expensive. 6. Wind turbines are noisy, contributing to noise pollution. | Pros: 1. Besides the manufacturing of equipment, wind turbines do not emit any pollutants in operation. Reliance on wind power has decreased CO2, NOx, SO2, and mercury emissions. 2.Turbines are created to turn at specific wind speeds for maximum efficiency. 3. Under optimal conditions, wind power can have a EROI of 23:1! 4. Wind turbines do not require a vast amount of land so farmers can lease their land to developers for wind energy while farming (multiple use). 5. As long as there is sunshine, wind energy is available for usage. 6.WInd energy can work with other renewable energy sources, such as geothermal and solar energy to provide electricity.
54: Solar energy is the energy of the sun. There are two approaches to harness solar energy: -Passive: Buildings are designed and building materials are selected to maximize their direct absorption of sunlight in winter, even as they keep the interior cool in the summer. -Active: technological devices are used to focus, move, or store solar energy. | Solar Energy
55: Pros: 1. The sun is a perpetually renewable resource, as it is assumed to be present for the next 4-5 billion years. 2. PV cells and other solar technologies do not use fossil fuels during operation and are quiet and safe. 3. Solar technologies do not need maintenance after installation. 4. Solar power can be local and decentralized. In developed countries, one can even connect PV systems to electrical grids and sell excess energy to local utility (net metering). 5. Solar power development is providing many jobs. 6. In developing countries, solar powered cookers reduce wood combustion, reducing carbon monoxide and particulate matter emissions. 7. Solar power does not emit greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4. | Cons: 1. Sunlight is unevenly dispersed among regions. Some areas may not receive enough sunlight to harness into electricity. Daily and seasonal variations also affect how much electricity can be produced. Backup fossil fuel is needed. 2. The initial cost of solar technology is extremely expensive and higher than that of the fossil fuels. 3.To manufacture PV cells and other solar technology, fossil fuels are used. The usage of fossil fuels emits greenhouse gases, such as CO2, NOx, CH4.
56: Hydropower is the generation of electricity using the kinetic energy of moving water. Hydropower is harnessed through two approaches: Storage (the most common): large amounts of water are impounded in a reservoir behind a concrete dam and then passed through the dam to turn turbines that generate water. Run of river: any approach that does not disrupt the flow of river water. | Hydropower
57: Pros: 1. Since all hydropower depends on is precipitation, it is renewable. 2. Hydropower does not burn any carbon compounds so it does not emit CO2 or other pollutants into the atmosphere. 3. Hydropower is efficient with an EROI of 10:1. 4. Impoundment facilitie (dams) provide recreational opportunities, such as boating and fishing. | Cons: 1. Impoundment facilities (dams) submerge some riparian habitats and dry others downstream. This alteration induces stress on certain species. 2. Natural flooding cycles are disrupted, as water discharge is regulated to optimize electricity generation. 3. The building of these hydropower facilities cause sediments to deposit in the reservoir instead of flowing downstream. 4. Turbines also kill migrating fish. Despite fish ladders, dams fragment rivers for fish. 5. These facilities cause thermal pollution because water downstream becomes warmer (less water). When torrents of water are released from a dam, a cold shock occurs downstream. 6. The building of hydropower facilities requires vast capital. 7. Though the "run of the river" approach is not as ecologically harmful, it is not as reliable in providing energy.
59: Biofuel is fuel produced from biomass energy sources and used to power cars. Algae biofuel utilizes algae as the biomass to provide energy. | Algae/Biofuel
60: Pros: 1. Algae is fast growing so this fuel can be generated quickly. 2. Algae can be grown on top of water, so it does not take up valuable land area. 3. Using biofuel can achieve carbon neutrality, as one is just releasing carbon stored from photosynthesis. 4. Any living matter (plants or animals) can be converted to biofuel. | Cons: 1. Harvesting algae is extremely expensive. 2. Many automobiles are not compatible with algae biofuel so new engines must be designed. 3. Algae and other types of biofuels need fertilizers to grow, releasing nitrogen oxides into the waters and air. 4. Other types of biofuels (such as corn ethanol) require lots of land, decreasing food producing land.
62: Hmmm, after learning about all these alternative, renewable fuels, I strongly believe America should reduce its dependence on oil... I really like the localized solar panel idea. I want to be able to offer citizens the opportunity to sell back electricity to electric companies. With some state subsidies and tax breaks, perhaps, I will be able to make PV cells and other solar technology more affordable!
63: Memo: Reflection: Wow! This week has been incredible. Besides shopping in L.A (and witnessing its horrid photochemical smog), I learned so much! The presentations were awesome and inspiring. Who knew that there were so many alternative renewable and nonrenewable resources? I know my house is still powered on coal, but that is definitely changing soon! When I get back, solar energy is one of my top priorities. This conference has definitely changed me into a scientifically based politician! Thank goodness I was able to keep all the diagrams, photos, and notes about global climate change so I could scrapbook this memorable week!