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Gold Rush

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S: The Australian Gold Rush Written by Jaime Slabbert

FC: The Australian Gold Rush! Written by Jaime Slabbert

1: Contents Page! | The Beginning ...............................................2 Scrapbook.......................................................3 Clothing..........................................................4 Important supplies..........................................5 Food and Water..............................................6 Camping in the Gold Fields...........................7 Two Types Of Mining....................................8 The Eureka Stockade......................................9 Schooling throughout the gold rush.............10 Law, Order and Racism...............................12 More on Gold...............................................13 References....................................................14 Gallery..........................................................16

2: The Australian gold rush was a very exciting time in Australia history. It was a time where thousands of people all over the world rushed in boats, trains, foot, horse and some even by wheel barrow all the way to Australia to try their luck finding Gold! Gold was found quite consistently throughout Australia during the 19th century (1850's) People call this time the Australian gold rush! | The Beginning!

3: Scrap Book

4: Clothing- Men The miners of the Australian gold rush usually would wear a 'wide brimmed hat- to protect them from the sun, a variety of woollen, cotton or linen shirts and normally another top to keep warm. Another essential item would be pants made from twill cloth or wool. In winter long underwear was worn and high leather boots to protect the knee. | Clothing- Women! The women of the Australian gold rush would normally wear a bonnet to shade themselves from the sun, long dresses over another layer of dressing,woollen shawls to keep warm at night, laced boots, slippers or leather shoes with either a short heel or no heel. The women would be found working in the house and wore aprons to keep their clothing clean. | Clothing Men and women!

5: Did you know? The Victorian gold rush was the largest rush recorded in Australian history. Since the gold rush started approximately 800 tones of gold was mined. | Surviving The Gold Rush! | Supplies: To survive the gold rush there were many items you would need to have for example wooolen blankets to keep warm at night, lots and lots of flour- to cook with, mutton to eat, tools, a tent to sleep in, a permit. and last but not least a long lasting supply of water! | What is a Permit? A permit is a special license which gives you permission to mine. In the day of the gold rush if you were caught mining without your permit you were fined and go be arrested.

6: Food and water: The majority of the gold miners ate meat, bread and damper. They would usually make their meals using bucket loads of mutton and flour. They very rarely ate vegetables, however the miners discovered a recipe called 'Irish stew'. Irish stew contained potatoes, cabbage and onions mixed with mutton. Not only did the hard working crowed need food but also water. Water was in HUGE demand at the time of the Australian gold rush and many people suffered from diseases such as cholera , typhoid and dysentery. There were also other diseases that took hold of the campsites such as pneumonia which is an infection of the lungs. All of this drama was caused by the lack of clean water. It was only in 1895 when designs to build a pipeline was made. A very special engineer named C.Y O'Connor was the mastermind behind building this pipe line. On 24th of January 1903 was when the first of many gallons of water arrived in the Gold Fields. Tears of joy and relief was shared through all of the camps. | Did you Know? The Gold Fields pipeline was the largest pipeline ever built by man. The pipe carried around 5 million gallons of water per day from a dam , built by C.Y O'Connor called Mundaring weir. Did you know that water was carried for approximately 330 miles. | What is Damper? Damper was a type of bread substance that the miners made using flour,water and then boiling the ingredients on a camp fire.

7: Home made treatment When a miner, women or child became sick, most of the time they couldn't afford to go to the doctors. So instead they used 'home remedies' such as eucalyptus oil, herbal drugs or bought pills called 'Cures'. Sometimes the medicines did not work as promised. | Camping: After a long, hard days work at the mines the men would return back to camp to their homes also known as Canvas tents. Canvas tents were basically huts made from wood, tree bark, mud, reeds and tools such as an Axe , nails, shovel and hammer.

8: At the time of the Australian gold rush There were two major forms of mining. These were Shaft mining and Alluvial mining. | alluvial Mining! Alluvial mining is when tools such as pans and water sieve through the dried up river beds and lakes to find gold. In the early days on earth the heat and pressure caused the ground to crack. Substances such as gold and silver fell through these cracks. Over time because of the weather patterns changing' the land was eroded and this made it easier to mine. The gold was also lighter so it was lighter to pick up and retrieve. | Shaft Mining! shaft mining was the more expensive form of mining. In the Australian gold rush miners would dig themselves deep, dark holes in the ground and then use a pulley type machine to lower themselves down their hole. The miners would usually follow the gold veins in the ground. | Tools: Different tools for different sorts of mining were used. For example if you chose to shaft mine tools such as windlass, cradle, pick and bucket however with Alluvial mining a shovel pick, pan and

9: Eureka Stockade! The Eureka stockade was a very unpleasant and chaotic time during the Australian gold rush era. It is mainly remembered for the fight against the Victorian government and the gold miners of Ballarat. It was not long after the rush had started, when in 1854 the hard working miners became very annoyed with paying the fee for buying a miners permit. | Flag! The Eureka flag was launched and held proudly by the miners of Ballarat, Victoria, on Bakery Hill. On Bakery Hill the miners said on oath which read "We swear by the Southern Cross to stand truly by each other and fight to defend our rights and liberties".

10: During the era of the Australian gold rush the number of children living in Australia increased enormously therefore more and more schools had to open. It started off that only one in four children attend 2 years at school but as time passed more and more children were born and sent to school. | This here is a slate! | The school buildings were usually made out of wood and bark, some even out of brick. Did you know in those days it was your families choice whether you attended school or not because of the harsh conditions and cost. | Schooling in the Gold Fields! | Children between the ages 7-12 years old attended school. The younger levels learned to read, write and do mathematics. Senior years studied geography, history and grammar. Instead of using paper or text books to learn students used flat pieces of rock called slates. Slates required chalk to be used instead of pencil or pen.

11: This here is what the school houses would have looked like! | Strict rules and punishments The schools in the gold fields were very strict.There were a series of rules that the students, girls and boys had to follow. Basic rules included being respectful towards your teachers and classmates, Hands and nails had to be clean or else you would be sent home to clean them, You were only allowed to speak with your teachers permission. Children had to have a handkerchief with them all the time. There was no running to class and boys had to remove their hats before entering class. - | Discipline! If you were a child who went to school on the Gold Fields you could be punished for submitting wrong answers, untidy work as well as being late and naughty. The boys were usually hit with a long, wooden cane normally on the bottom or hand. Girls were normally slapped on their hands and legs and occasionally caned.

12: Law and order! | Violence and Racism During the Australian gold rush people from all over the world travelled all the way to Australia, however over time dislikes for the Chinese spread throughout the camps. On the 4th of July 1857 in Buckland Valley,Victoria, approximately 100 diggers attacked the Chinese camp. The riot destroyed around 500 tents and then the Chinese were driven out of the area accompanied by clubs and whips. Many other Chinese people would have been killed if the day hadn't been saved by a group of English diggers. The guilty group were later transported to jail. | New laws were passed throughout the gold rush period. In 1851 laws were such as that the diggers would have to buy a new permit license every month. The governments of New South Wales and Victoria decided to send out 'gold commissioners' all around the gold fields to make sure theses laws were enforced.

13: More on Gold! | What is gold? Gold is a metallic substance that is highly 'malleable' and 'ductile'. It is also described as a yellowy gold colour. | Gold symbolizes many qualities, some of these being wealth and power. | Did you know? Archaeologists predict that gold originated from the middle east. | What do we use and need gold for? There are many important ways in which we use and need gold for. One of these reasons is to make money,jewelry and sometimes even machinery and other industrious uses.

14: Gallery

15: Gallery

16: 1. How they lived The Gold Rush Era written by Michael Dugan 2. Life on the GOLDFIELDS written by Melanie Guile 3. Eureka Rebellion written by Barrie Shappard 4. Daily Life on the Goldfields written by Kimberley Webber 5.www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_stockade- | References

17: About the Author! | Hello reader, my name is Jaime Slabbert. I am 11 years old and was born in February 1998. I wrote this book as a school 'PACE' task on the Australian Gold Rush. I have to sisters and live in Perth Western Australia. When i am older i wish to become a fashion designer.

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