FC: GRAPES OF ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND
2: Geography Elizabethan English territory was large, consisting of 50,334 square miles of land, including modern-day England, Ireland, and Wales.
3: Geography Northern England featured the Cumbrian Mountain Range, while Southern England featured rolling hills and plains. Because of its varying geography, people traveling through England used a variety of methods of transportation, including horses and even ships when approaching England from a body of water, such as the North Sea.
4: Religion After separating from the Roman Church in 1531, England wavered between Protestantism and Catholicism. Under the rule of Queen Elizabeth, England was Protestant, although tolerant toward Catholics. Religion was very much a part of daily life in Elizabethan England, as citizens were legally obligated to attend church on Sundays.
5: Religion Aside from Christianity, the people of who lived during England's Elizabethan England period had more exotic beliefs, such as the belief in witchcraft, withces, and witch hunts. Individuals labeled as witches were typically women who were old, poor, unprotected, or even widowed. These witches were scapegoated and served as an explanation when things went wrong in England, such as the outbreak of the Bubonic Plague or a bad harvest. Queen Elizabeth I even held "witch trials" in which witches were hung if found guilty.
6: Achievements Elizabethan England had many achievements, many in the realms of art and music. Music was played in a variety of genres and could create a variety of moods. Plays began to incorporate music in order to "heighten the drama". A very popular type of song was the madrigal, a secular vocal music composition filled with emotion and usually sung a cappella. In terms of literature, English writers began to write in complex poetic structures, such as sonnets, during this period. Famous writers of the time include William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Ben Jonson.
7: Achievements The Elizabethan Era also boasts many achievements in exploration. Great explorers included Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Richard Greenville. With the help of technology, specifically the compass and the astrolabe, English explorers were able to travel, claiming new land and bringing new goods back to England.
8: Politics During this era, England was ruled through a monarchy, Queen Elizabeth I being the monarch. She passed many strict laws, including the enforcement of Protestantism. In addition, she was a scholar who was fluent in Latin, English, Greek, French, Spanish, and Welsh. During her rule, she was able to lead England in defeating the Spanish Armada and the Irish and Essex Rebellions. Elizabeth's greatest accomplishment, however, is that despite the advisors and statesmen whom she hired, she stood firmly in charge of all decisions and policies. It is remarkable that in a society dominated by men, she was able to gain so much power, success, and respect.
9: Politics One major political event of the time was the Essex Rebellion. After Queen Elizabeth I appointed the Earl of Essex, Robert Devereux, as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1599, he signed an unapproved truce with an Irish rebel, the Earl of Tyrone. The Queen arrested Devereux, angering the rebel earl and leading him to attempt to stir a revolution to overthrow her. However, the rebellion failed to conjure up support and Queen Elizabeth was able to defeat the rebels, capturing Robert Devereux and executing him for treason.
10: Economy Leading into the Elizabethan Period, England's economic prospects seemed gloomy. When Queen Elizabeth I came into power, England was poor as a result of the wars of Phillip II (the husband of Mary I, who had ruled before her). Beggars and vagabonds were common sights in cities, and the average life expectancy had dropped to 40. In addition, tobacco consumption became a popular and costly habit during this time.
11: Economy Under the rule of Queen Elizabeth, England was brought out of this dark economic time. London became the European center of trade where England prospered as a result of its woolen cloth, tin, copper, and iron industries. New ideas and skills were brought to London, such as lace-making, silk weaving, engraving, and needle-and-thread-making. In addition, English Renaissance architecture flourished, adding beauty to the cities and introducing new types of buildings, including theaters. Finally, one of the most important economic achievements of this era was England's expansion to the New World.
12: Society Elizabethan society was divided into classes - the royal class, the gentry (gentlemanly landowners), the Yeoman (English freemen with a variety of responsibilities, such as jury duty and military responsibilities), tenants, skilled laborers, and landless laborers. Each class had a different lifestyle, income, and set of responsibilities.
13: Society Life was difficult for Elizabethan women during this time. They were subservient to men in every aspect of life, and were not given the same job and educational opportunities but rather were expected to tend to the animals and children, cook, and clean and take care of the house, garden, and yard. In addition, women faced other political and social oppressions, such as being denied the right to vote and the right to choose a spouse, and pressure to focus on appearance. Women were taught to apply white face paint in order to have a pale complexion and were required by law to wear certain colors and styles of clothing. The white makeup contained led which led to illness and death in many women, and the clothing which they were forced to wear had multiple layers and was very heavy and uncomfortable. Thus, it was not easy to be a woman in Elizabethan times.
14: http://www.erasofelegance.com/history/elizabethanarts.html http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/accomplishments-of-queen-elizabeth-i.htm http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-age-of-exploration.htm http://www.william-shakespeare.org.uk/william-shakespeare-politics.htm http://www.bardweb.net/england.html http://faculty.tnstate.edu/smcurtis/Elizabethan%20Economy.htm http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-village-life.htm http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-women.htm http://historymedren.about.com/library/atlas/blatmapce1555.htm http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-life.htm http://www.elizabethanenglandlife.com/elizabethan-england-map.html http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-witchcraft-and-witches.htm All images found through Google Images.
16: William Shakespeare was born on April 23rd, 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon, England. He grew up within a wealthy family with seven siblings, three of whom did not survive past childhood.
17: He married Anne Hathaway in 1583, and together they conceived three children - Hamnet, Judith, and Susanna. In 1596, Hamnet caught the quickly-spreading Bubonic Plague and died tragically at the age of eleven. Hamnet was buried in Stratford-on-Avon on August 11, 1596.
18: In order to follow his dream of becoming an actor, William Shakespeare left his family behind and moved to London with a traveling acting troupe called the Queen's men. He later performed with the Lord's Strange Men at the Rose Theatre.
19: When the Bubonic Plague devastated England, all public places were closed, including theaters. Shakespeare continued his career during this period of time by writing sonnets and poems.
20: Shakespeare spent most of the remainder of his career playwriting and acting as a member of The Lord Chamberlain's Men (later renamed The King's Men, after King James I).