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1: About 5000 years ago the first playground was built for all people to enjoy. This playground had many slides and tricks spread out throughout the southern of the playground in Asia and the Northern part of the playground in Africa. The playground was near a water fountain so that all the kids could drink it when they got tired. Some of the slides and tricks were lucky because they were closer to the fountain then others. The two slides near the water fountain were called Egypt and Nubia. Even though they were close together, they were different. The See-saw named Mesopotamia was a nickname for toy between the fountains. The fountains were called Tigris and Euphrates. These two fountains made it possible to water the grass around the playground. Having these fountains made it more fun for family picnics and running for little kids. Next was the monkey bars named Harrappan, they were very busy all the time and was different then the others because there was always so many people around. Last but not least was Xia, Shang, and Zhou and they were the swings and they’re ideas made new swings that are better. This whole playground made it more fun for people to enjoy and play. | ARVC Playground

2: What if people had not built the playground? If no one built the playground then there would be no place to play at for kids. The playground led to slides and tricks that made it possible for kids to meet friends and have a fun thing to do. The playground was the first thing that made kids want to get to know other kids and make friends. Without the playground kids would be bored all over the world and lonely.

3: Mrs.Rutherford’s class had three different class pets. There was the bunny, turtle, and fish. You could only play with the bunny if you were a boy and lived in the forest. You could only play with the turtle if you were a boy and lived in a neighborhood. Everyone else could look at the fish but only touch them if they would clean the tank. Only the people that played with the bunny were allowd to come up with the rules for the class pets. In the coloring corner, the boys from the forest decided they would make two groups so not only one person made all the rules and were bossy. The first group was all the older boys because they made better choices. The second group had 6 boys that were in charge of there group for only two days and then 6 new boys would get to be in charge. These groups would then take all the rules they came up with and showed them to Mrs.Rutherford who made the final choice. You were only allowd to be apart of the coloring corner if you made all A’s in the class. | CLASSPETS

4: What if Mrs.Rutherford didn't get class pets? If Mrs .Rutherford did not get class pets then the class room would be boring and it wouldn’t show responsibility. Without the coloring corner the classrooms would be crazy and no one would listen to one another and what they had to say. Then one person would be in charge and be bossy to everyone. Playgrounds around the world would be crowded and people would get hurt without a line to the tricks and slides.

5: African climate is extremely hot. They are known for their deserts like the most common one, Sahara. It is the largest desert. People would most likely settles on savannas. These were areas that were very open and grassy. The people in Africa organized themselves into family groups. They also created belief systems. The only way that the ways of the Africans were passed down were because of the griots, the people who told the stories of their families. This allowed traditions and stories to be told. Big groups of people started to migrate. The Bantus were the main ones who were involved in the migrating. They created their own culture and way of living. | Post Classical Asia/Africa

6: If the Mongols had not opened the silk roads there would have been less cultural diffusion because people would not have traded things to that extent. A lot of the isolation that we saw in certain places, such as China, would have occurred in several different areas. The Mongols opened the doors to things we have now such as the mall and shops because we can trade with other countries and sell them here. | What if the Mongols had not opened up the Silk Road?

7: During Post Classical (Medieval Europe), there were three different time periods, the Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages and the Late Middle Ages. The Early Middle Ages was from 500-1000, the High Middle Ages was from 1000-1250, and the Late Middle Ages was from 1250-1500. During the start of Medieval Europe came the Medieval Catholic Church. The Bishops and Abbots played a huge role in the feudal system and the Catholic Church itself controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. The Feudal system consisted at the top was the King and the Church, then came the Vessels and the Lords, then was the Knights and lastly was the Peasants and the Serfs. Architectural Style was made up of Rounded Arches and Barrel Vaults, Thick Walls and Dark simplistic interiors, and small windows that were usually at the top of the wall. Charlemagne’s time of power was 742-814. Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on December 25th 800. A chivalry was considered a code of honor and behavior. Henry the II established the common law throughout the kingdom. The Magna Carta was then signed in 1215, stating that Monarchs were not above the law, kings had to consult a council of advisors and that kings could not tax arbitrarily. The Great Council consisted of the Middle Class Merchants and Townspeople. It eventually turned into the Parliament and was and by 1400 two chambers were made. It was the House of the Lords which had the Nobles and the Clergy and then the House of Commons which had the Knights and the Burgesses. | Renissance

8: What if the Black Plague did not attack Western Europe? If the Black Plague did not attack Western Europe, the world itself wouldn’t have been introduced to other diseases. If we weren’t introduced to other diseases then we wouldn’t have experienced being exposed to them. We also could have never gotten the chance for our bodies to try to come immune to them. This also wouldn’t give doctors the opportunities to find cures or medicines to harmful outbreaks.

9: Around 1300-1600 the start of the building of the Library began. Library to this school meant rebirth. During the time of the rebuilding a new way of reading was being created. There were four different books for that. There was individualism, Humanism, well-roundness, and classicism. Individualism was a book about people being themselves and that man can create its own destiny. The book Humanism was about humans being the center of everything and they were the measure of all things. The book well-roundness was a book about how humans could do well at a lot of different things. The last book was Classicism and that was a book about how people had interest in Classical Greece and Rome. The Library brought many things to the town. Some people were concerned of the reason for the building of the Library. The most important part of the Library was the label maker. Johannes Guttenberg delivered it to the library and it was very heavy. It weighed also 1450 pounds. The label maker made it easy for the Library to be organized and there was a label just for the new books. It was a faster to way to find what book you were looking for. | REnissanceform

10: What if Gutenberg had not brought in the label maker? If he did not bring in the label maker then the Library would not be organized. We also wouldn’t have has as many books checked out and then the knowledge would go down because people wouldn’t be reading. People would lack in other subjects because they wouldn’t have the resources to learn new things. Without the label maker the Library wouldn’t have enough room for all the books.

11: A school was not just a place of order but a place of ideas. Great teachers, new norms, and brains. There were many people in the school that helped. The school conflicted with the art department and the science department. The art department wanted to just believe it what was out there and the science department wanted to prove it was out there. A main teacher in the art department was John Locke. He believed in everyone painting what they wanted and going outside the paper. Thomas Hobbes was in the art department as well but he made his students paint inside the lines and do what he told them to do. The science classes discovered everything, and made things that would be useful to people. Some main teachers in the Science department were Isaac Newton and Galileo. Mr.Newton was an astronomer and most importantly discovered the laws of motion and gravity. Galileo invented the telescope so you could see all the beautiful stars and planets in the sky. So having a school was very important because without a school people can’t learn and if people cant learn then there would be no new ideas and discoveries. | ER SCHOOLS

12: What if the students didn’t want to go to school? If the students didn’t want to go to school then they would not learn about all the great things that are out there. They would look up at the stars and not know what they are looking at. Without school people wouldn’t have an education and without an education there would be no ability to get a job. If people didn’t have jobs then there would be no chain reaction of all the greats ideas that could be added.

13: On July 28, 1914 the World War began when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The so called small conflict between the two countries turned into an outburst after Germany, Great Britain, Russia and Germany were all drawn into the war. One of the main reasons the other counties were drawn into the war was because of treaties that they got themselves involved in. The treaties obligated them to defend against other countries. Soon after the start of the war Western and Eastern fronts were soon open along Germany and Austria-Hungary. In the West Germany attacked first Belgium and then France, while in the East Russia attacked both Germany and Austria-Hungary. In late 1914, the Ottoman Empire was brought into the war after Germany tricked Russia think Turkey had attacked it. During the middle part of the war, 1916-1917, was the dominated by the Trench Warfare, soldiers dug holes where they would fight, pelting each other with machine guns, heavy artillery, and chemical weapons. Many soldiers died from brutal health conditions. In early April of 1917, the United States who was angered upon attacks during the war, declared war on Germany. In November, the Bolshevik Revolution encouraged the Russians to pull out of the war. In the late fall of 1918, the war ended, after members of all of the countries from the Central Powers signed Armistice Agreements, Germany was the last to sign in the agreement on November 11, 1918. Resulting in signing this agreement, Austria-Hungary split up in to many different countries while Germany who was under the Treaty of Versailles, dealt with economic damages, strict limits on their rights to develop militaries and territorial losses. | WW I

14: World War I What if: What if Germany had not been solely blamed for WWI? If Germany had not been solely blamed for WWI, they wouldn’t have had to deal with damages on their economy, they would have had strict limits on how to develop their military and they wouldn’t have lost so much territory. Countries from the Central Powers possibly might not have had to sign the Armistice Agreement. Germany’s Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist wouldn’t have taken over Germany. Germany also wouldn’t need to support the Bolshevists on the Eastern Front, their wouldn’t have been a communist revolution with Russia and the USSR wouldn’t have existed. Also all mass horrors that the world had to deal with also might have been avoided like World War II, The Holocaust, Soviet Occupation of Eastern Europe, The Cold War, Mao’s Mass Murders, Pol Pot’s Mass Murders and their wouldn’t have been any influences for the Islamic Terrorists.

15: This was was a violent one and a lot of people were killed. There was a nonaggression pact signed between Germany and the Soviets. This was suppose to give each of them security of no attacks on each other. Germany turned on the agreement and their main leader Adolf Hitler was beginning to go after certain people. His plan was called "Final Solution". This was his idea to kill off groups of people. The most common one that you hear about is the Jews. The United States joined in after their own territory was attacked by Japan. Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese. This was a sailors station in Hawaii. The US joined the Allies side. This was the Germans, the Soviets and now the US. Luckily, the United States chose the right side because the Allies won the war. They changed some of their tactics and ended up winning battles. They then took control and won. | WW II

16: What if the US had not dropped the bombs on Japan? If the US did not drop the bomb on Japan than I believe that the war would have continued to go on. Things would have only gotten worse. I also believe that the development that happened in the United States would not have happened how it did. By dropping that bomb and gaining some superiority allowed the people in America to change and live the way that they wanted to.

17: Back then there was a freezer and that freezer was full of food for the lunch ladies who were having a competition on the best food. It was called the “food race”. They all wanted to make really good food, but Sally Urvey created a cookie that bursts with flavor. Later on Sally Urvey shocked one of the other lunch ladies named Annie by getting close to winning the food making competition. It surprised all of Annie’s family. In the 19th hour and 50th minute of the day Annie was not happy that now the grouchy lunch man Rusty was beating her as well. Later on Annie and some of her family became better in the food competition and got farther than they thought. Rusty tries to make a new recipe but it fails and so Annie and her family quickly go past him. The food competition finally ends when Annie makes a brand new dish called Noodles with Almond. | CW FOOD COMP

18: If Sally Urvey had won the food competition then Annie would not have been as known of a lunch lady. She would not get the satisfaction of winning. From then on Annie would be less of person then Sally because she didn't win the competition.

19: Glossary

20: fertile crescent-an area of fertile land in the Middle East, extending around theRivers Tigris and Euphrates in a semicircle from Israel to thePersian Gulf, where the Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian,Phoenician, and Hebrew civilizations flourished cultural diffusion-in anthropology, the process by which a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another polytheism- the doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods. Empires- a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor,empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usuallya territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the formerBritish Empire, french Empire, Russian Empire, ByzantineEmpire, or Roman Empire. Polis- an ancient Greek city-state. Democracy- government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. Classical Art- detailed, facial expressions Peloponnesian war- a war between Athens and Sparta, 431–404 b.c., that resulted in the transfer of hegemony in Greece from Athens to Sparta.

21: Sahara- a desert in N Africa, extending from the Atlantic to the Nile valley Savannas- a plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa. Griots- a member of a hereditary caste among the peoples of westernAfrica whose function is to keep an oral history of the tribe or village and to entertain with stories, poems, songs, dances, etc. Bantus- a member of any of several Negroid peoples forming a linguistically and in some respects culturally interrelated family in central and southern Africa. Gothic- noting or pertaining to a style of architecture, originating in France in the middle of the 12thcentury and existing in the western half of Europe through the middle of the 16th century, characterized by the use of the pointed arch and the ribbed vault, by the use of fine wood work and stonework, by a progressive lightening of structure, and by the use of such features as flying buttresses, ornamental gables, crockets, and foils. Crusades- any of the military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of europe in the 11th, 12th, and13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from theMuslims.

22: Guild- an organization of persons with related interests, goals, etc.,especially one formed for mutual aid or protection. Renaissance- the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art,literature, and learning in europe beginning in the 14thcentury and extending to the 17th century, marking thetransition from the medieval to the modern world. Humanism- any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate. printing press- a machine, as a cylinder press or rotary press, for printing on paperor the like from type, plates, etc. Reformation- the religious movement in the 16thcentury that had for its object the reform of the RomanCatholic Church, and that led to the establishment of theProtestant churches. scientific revolution- the period of great advances in the sciences,roughly 1500-1700 John Locke- believed in having natural rights natural rights- any right that exists by virtue of natural law. Declaration of Independence- the public act by which the Second Continental Congress, onJuly 4, 1776, declared the Colonies to be free andindependent of England.

23: Nationalism- national spirit or aspirations. Central Powers- (in world War I) Germany and Austria-Hungary, often with theirallies turkey and Bulgaria, as opposed to the Allies. Allies- (in World War I) the powers of theTriple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), with thenations allied with them (Belgium, Serbia, japan, Italy trench warfare- combat in which each side occupies a system of protectivetrenches. nonaggression pact- A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states/countries agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them and resolve their disputes through peaceful negotiations. Adolf Hitler-leader of the holocaust "Final Solution"-the Nazi program of annihilating the Jews of europe during theThird Reich. Pearl Harbor- a harbor near Honolulu, on S Oahu, in hawaii: surprise attackby japan on the U.S. naval base and other militaryinstallations December 7, 1941. Communism- a theory or system of social organization based onthe holding of all property in common, actual ownership beingascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. Truman Doctrine- the policy of President Truman, as advocated in his address toCongress on March 12, 1947, to provide military and economic aidto Greece and turkey and, by extension, to any countrythreatened by communism or any totalitarian ideology. nuclear weapons- an explosive device whose destructive potential derives fromthe release of energy that accompanies the splitting or combiningof atomic nuclei. Sputnik- any of a series of Soviet earth-orbiting satellites: Sputnik I was the world's first space satellite.

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