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History of the World

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FC: History Of The World | By: Jarrisha Watson and Kate Snel

1: Ancient River Valley Civilization Classical Greece/Rome Post-Classical Asia/Africa Post-Classical (Medieval) Europe Renaissance/Reformation Enlightenment/Revolutions World War I World War II Cold War | Table of Contents | 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19

2: If people had not learned how to farm we would all still be hunters, gatherers, and nomads roaming the earth. When people learned how to farm they began to settle developing villages. Those villages later turned into civilizations and empires. Without the neolithic revolution things such as countries, states, and cities would seize to exist.

3: Ancient River Valley Civilization The Egyptian civilization had a theocratic government and they were polytheistic. The Nile River brought floods to them. They also made hyroglifics and pyramids. The Mesopotamian civilization used Hammurabi Code and was polytheistic. Their farming techniques started the Neolithic Revolution. They also invented the wheel, sail, plow, writing system, and number system. The Indus River civilization was in India and had a Hindu culture. They invented plumbing, sewers, and grids for cities. The Chinese civilization had an emperor and was isolated for the rest of the major civilizations. They also believed in the mandate of heaven.

4: If Athens had not embraced democracy our lives today wouldn't be the same. Had there been no democracy our Declaration of Independence would be non-existent. As would our rights in this country. We would have established another form of government such as communism or theocracy.

5: Classical Era Sparta was a city-state that was very focused on war and military. They had a variety of social classes including aristocracy. Their people learned how to stand up for their city and fight. Athens was a democracy. The men ruled over the women. They avoided war, were highly educated, and believed in individualism.

6: If the Mongols had not opened the Silk Road to safe travel then trade would have been put to a complete stop. If people couldn't pass through safely to trade with other countries the world would be cut off from necessities. People wouldn't be able to begin traveling to conquer other lands, creating new countries. The world would be at a stand still and malnourished because they can't grow certain items in their land.

7: Post-Classical Asia/Africa The Tang and Song Empires had many great influences like civil service exams, foot binding, porcelain, mechanical clock, printing, gunpowder, paper money, and mechanical compass. Asian countries easily traded on a road called the Silk Road. Genghis Khan was the leader of the Mongols. His conquering strategy was to get inside the peoples heads.

8: If the Black Plague did not attack Western Europe it wouldn't have lost one third of its population. The Black Plague was a significant event in history,especially because of its aftermath. The aftermath was known as the "Awakening" when Europe stepped out of its slumber. Europe regained its knowledge and discovered new ideas.

9: Post-Classical Europe The black death was the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe. The crusades was a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Pope Urban II started the first crusade.

10: If Gutenburg hadn't invented the printing press your daily newspaper would be non-existent. When Gutenburg invented the printing press it gave way to many new ideas. The people of that century could now write books and have them published, even create newspapers. Without the printing press we wouldn't have freedom of press, because nothing would be printed.

11: Renaissance/Reformation The Renaissance was the revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th–16th centuries. The culture and style of art and architecture also developed during this era. Perspective was a new art technique used in this time. The Crusades pull Europe into trade with the rest of the world. Also Gutenberg creates the printing press.The Reformation was a movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches.

12: If the Enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists our lives today would be similar to how they were centuries ago. We wouldn't have unalienable rights, our three branches of government or physics. The Enlightenment was a very significant time in history, people were at their brightest and we still use many of their ideas today.The Enlightenment ideas are the very foundation of our society without them the world would be at a stand still.

13: Enlightenment/Revolutions The scientific revolution was a new way of thinking about the the natural world. During this revolution there were many great scientists and philosophers who brought in new ideas about math, astronomy, physics, and literature. Some of these people include Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton. The heliocentric theory and scientific method were also made during this time. The Enlightenment was the birth of a new ideas, a new way of thinking. Some of the major Enlightenment thinkers were John Locke, Montesquieu, and Voltaire.

14: If the Austrian heir to the throne had not been assassinated World War I would not have happened. Serbia and Austria-Hungary would not have declared war on one another and its allies would not have gotten pulled into it. Then Germany wouldn't have gotten involved or have been left with the blame.Nor would the world have gone through a depression because of enormous war debts.

15: World War I The causes of World War I are militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism. The U.S. entered the war because of the Bolshevik Revolution, unrestricted submarine warfare, Lusitania, and the Zimmerman note. Trench warfare was very brutal and disgusting. Soldiers were couldn't take showers, be surrounded by other dead soldiers, and eat canned food. At the end of the war the Allies won and blamed Germany. Germany had to pay for all of the war fees. They also lost their land, couldn't have a standing army, and couldn't manufacture war material.

16: If the British and the French had not used appeasement as their foreign policy World War II wouldn't have taken place. Had Britain and France stopped Hitler instead of appeasing him he wouldn't have begun to start the war.By appeasing Hitler they let him advance in his plan to take back all lands taken from him and conquering the enemies lands. If Britain and France would have punished Hitler the first time around he wouldn't have conquered a portion of there lands, or forced the world into yet another depression.

17: World War II The Treaty of Versailles led to World War II. The U.S. gets involved when Pearl Harbor is bombed. The Allied Powers were the U.K., U.S., Soviet Union, China, Canada, and Australia. The Axis Powers were Germany, Japan, and Italy. The German "Final Solution" was known as the Holocaust. The war ends when the Allies win the war.

18: If the U.S had not adopted the theory of containment many more countries would be ruled by communism. North Korea and South Korea would be joined as one country. The Vietnam war wouldn't have happened, and the U.S would be involved in fewer disputes in other countries. Had the U.S not stepped in Communism would have spread like wild fire and we may have been one of a few democratic countries in the world.

19: Cold War The Cold War was a nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was initiated after WWII when the U.S. and the Soviet Union both gained nuclear power. It was a battle of both fear and hatred and not a shot was fired. Things like the space race heightened struggle between the two powers. The Cuban missile crisis was the closest the world came to a nuclear war.

20: Glossary Theocratic- a government in which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure. Polytheistic- a belief in many gods. Hammurabi Code- ancient strict laws used in Babylon. Neolithic Revolution- a major change in human life caused by the beginnings of farming- that is, by people's shift from food gathering to food processing. City-State- a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit. Aristocracy- a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class. Democracy- a government controlled by its citizens, either directly or through representatives. Individualism- A social theory favoring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control

21: Foot Binding- A traditional Chinese practice of tying a young girl's feet tightly so that her feet remained small (and often painful) into adulthood. Silk Road- a system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods. Mongols- A native or national of Mongolia; a Mongolian. Crusade- a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Plague- A contagious bacterial disease characterized by fever and delirium. Black Death- was the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe. Pope Urban II- was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death. Perspective- an artistic technique that creates the appearance of 3 dimensions on a flat surface. Crusades- one of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.

22: Printing Press- a machine for reproducing written material by pressing paper against arrangements of inked type. Roman Catholic- the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy Scientific Revolution- a growth of new scientific knowledge. Nicolaus Copernicus- the first astronomer to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Isaac Newton- English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion John Locke- English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience Militarism- a policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war. Nationalism- the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation Lusitania- a ship holding U.S. citizens that was blown up.

23: Zimmerman Note- a telegraph that the U.S. intercepted from Germany. It stated to Mexico that they were trying to make a deal to fight against the U.S. Treaty of Versailles- the peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied powers after WWI. Pearl Harbor- got bombed. How the U.S. got involved in WWII. Final Solution- The Holocaust Holocaust- a mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government of Germany before and during WWII. Nuclear Arms Race- A competition between countries on who could built a nuclear bomb first. Soviet Union- A former federation of communist republics that occupied the northern half of Asia and part of eastern Europe Space Race- A competition between countries on who could get to the moon first. Cuban Missile Crisis- a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War.

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