FC: Hokuriku Salamander Hokuriku Sansho-uo | By Sophia Ladisla
1: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Amphibia Order: Caudata Family: Hynobiidae Genus: Hynobius Species: Hynobius takedai
2: The natural habitats of these animals are irrigated land, freshwater marshes and rivers, and deciduous forests. Major threats are predators, water pollution, and destruction of breeding habitats. | Hokuriku Salamanders are challenging to find because they are nocturnal, only moving at night to keep from being seen. This type of salamander eats worms and arthropods, but are also known to eat each other when they cannot find food.
3: The Hokuriku Salamander is native to Japan; from Ishikawa Prefecture and Toyoma Prefecture.
4: Hokuriku Salamanders have distinctly long heads, short limbs, and 12-13 costal grooves. The tail is vertically oval at the base, gradually flattening towards the tip, which is pointed. These salamanders have four fingers and usually five toes. Its two vomerine teeth are small and form either a shallow U or V shape. The length of their limbs, shape of their teeth, and the number of costal grooves help to distinguish it from the similar species H. abei. | General Characteristics
5: Average adult body length Male: 10.8 centimeters Female: 10.1 centimeters | Males have larger heads while the females have longer trunks. The tail of the male is also longer and higher. Hokuriku Salamanders are dark brown or yellowish brown in color; the females having dark spots. The ventral side is pale, where females usually have bluish white blotches. Many females and non-breeding males have small bluish white spots on their sides and limbs. | Average adult body length Male: 10.8 centimeters Female: 10.1 centimeters
6: Female Hokuriku Salamanders lay eggs in ponds and swamps where the currents are little to none. Once hatched, the larvae live underwater for several months. The clutch size can hold an average of 90 eggs. The egg sacs are laid and coiled around the base of the reeds. | (The picture to the right are the eggs of the Hokuriku Salamander.)
7: Mating season occurs during January to April in waters of melted snow at the edge of forested areas. | Males arrive in the water to establish territories and fight off other males. The earliest males to reach the water are larger and have larger heads than the non-territorial males whom arrive later.
8: Conservation Plan Hokuriku Salamanders are captured and brought to an area where they can find enough food for survival. Because these Salamanders often eat one another when food becomes scarce, this method will help keep their population alive by providing them with their essentials. Researchers try to pinpoint where exactly they are disappearing so they can relocate them to a safe region. It is important to transfer them to a forest, freshwater marshes, or freshwater springs. Putting too many in the same area can cause danger because of the possibility of them eating each other.