FC: Exploration & Colonization | ~ By: Brooke Balenger ~
2: Hernan Cortez In 1519 Hernan Cortez left for Cuba to find gold. The Aztecs greatly outnumbered the Spaniards. After 3 battles the Indians gave up, a contrubiting factor may have been that the Spaniards wore metal armor.On November 8, 1519 Cortez reached Mexico City and was received by Montezuma, the Aztec emperor. Cortez captured Montezuma and began to rule the empire through him. The Aztecs worked in the mines looking for gold and silver. This gold and silver was shipped back to Spain. | Spanish Explorers
3: Francisco Pizarro In 1523 Pizarro led an expedition to explore and conquer the land of a wealthy Indian empire.The governor of Panama supplied a ship that sailed to the coast of Peru. He then sailed to Spain to ask for permission to conquer Peru.With 200 men and 40 horses Pizarro began to conquer. Pizarro later captured the Inca emperor and slaughter 2,000 Indians. Pizzeria accepted a large ransom for returning the emperor. | Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Coronado commanded an expedition which left from western Mexico in 1540. He was searching for the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola. Coronado went through northern Mexico and into what is now Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Coronado did not find any golden cities, but discovered the Pueblo Indians.
4: French Explorers | Jacques Cartier In 1534 Jacques Cartier tried to find a sea passage to the East Indies through North America. He could not find a river that would fit ships west from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but he did discovered the St. Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence River was much shorter than Cartier expected. It ended on a high hill which Cartier named King's Mountain (Mont Real) in honor of the King of France. The hill later became Montreal. Cartier claimed the land, and named it for the King of France. Canada became accessible for the Europeans through this discovery. Cartier took colonists to Cape Rouge near Quebec, and the colony was a failure.
5: Samuel de Champlain In 1603 Samuel de Champlain sailed to France on Francois Grave Du Pont's expedition. They sailed up the St. Lawrence River the Saguenay River they also explored the Gaspe Peninsula. From there he returned to France in 1603, and then went to Canada in 1604 on Pierre de Mont's expedition. | Champlain later led 32 colonists to settle Quebec in order to establish it as a fur-trading center in 1608. Champlain became friends with the Huron Indians and helped them fight the Iroquois During this battle he discovered Lake Champlain. In 1613 he sailed up the St. Lawrence, and explored the Ottawa River. Two years later after returning from France and ventured into what is now northern New York state and the eastern Great Lakes. Champlain was the leader of the Quebec settlement for years until the English attacked and tool the Fort at Quebec in July, 1629.Champlain once again returned to France. After a French-British peace treaty in 1632, Quebec was once again French, and Champlain returned as its governor.
6: Jacques Marquette In 1666 Father Jacques Marquette was sent to Canada by the Jesuits to convert native Indians to Catholics. Marquette was sent to Montreal to join his first mission at the Holy Ghost at La Pointe with Father Dablon teaching local tribes. The Illinois tribe told Marquette that their was a great river, which was called the Mississippi. Father Jacques Marquette started to get ready to travel to the Mississippi and meet the Native Indians.
7: In May of 1673, a 7 man expedition including Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joilet set off to the north shore of Lake Michigan to Green Bay and then up to the Fox River. They eventually realized that the Mississippi River did not lead to the Pacific Ocean but went into the Gulf of Mexico. They were warned about violent Indians ahead and the possibility of being captured by the Spanish, so they decided to turn back towards Quebec. In 1675 Marquette died due to exhausted by his travels to Illinois, he became ill and died.
8: Henry Hudson Henry Hudson was hired by the Muscovy Company in 1607, to find a waterway from Europe to Asia. Hudson made two trips, but failed to find a route to China. In 1607, he sailed to Spitzbergenand discovered Jan Mayen Island. In 1608, he sailed to Novaya Zemlya.Hudsen was then hired by the Dutch East India Company in 1609, to try to find the Northwest Passage farther south. On this trip Hudson sailed to Nova Scotia, and then sailed south. He found what is now called the Hudson River. Hudson is credited with discovering the location which is now New York City. Hudson sailed into New York's harbor on September 3, 1609. He sailed up the river about 150 miles but realized that this was not a waterway to India. His reports resulted in many Dutch settlements in the area. | British Explorers
9: John Cabot King Henry VII of England requested that John Cabot sail to Canada, so he did in 1497. Cabot landed near Labrador, Newfoundland, or Cape Breton Island on June 24, 1497. One of his sons, Sebastian Cabot, who is also an explorer came with him on this trip. Cabot claimed the land for England. Cabot explored the Canadian coastline and named many of its islands and capes. The mission's purpose was to search for a Northwest passage across North America to Asia. Cabot was unsuccessful, although he believed that he had reached northeastern Asia. Cabot took on another, larger expedition in 1498. On this trip, Cabot may have reached America, but that is not known. Cabot's expeditions were the first of Britain's claims to Canada.
10: Sir Humphrey Gibertlbert Sir Humphrey Gilbert started English settlements in Ireland & much later sailed to North America in search of a Northwest Passage. He founded an English settlement in Newfoundland. Gilbert is said to have believed that America was the lost continent of Atlantis. On September 23, 1578, he sailed from England, but was attacked by Spaniards and returned to England.
11: He successfully sailed again on June 11, 1583, with 5 ships. He landed in Newfoundland on July 30, 1583, and then sailed to St. John's. Gilbert claimed the area for Queen Elizabeth I of England, and started a colony. After two weeks in his new colony, Gilbert left his colony to explore the area around Nova Scotia. He died on this expedition when his boat sank near the Azore Islands on September 9, 1583.