S: Live N' Life In The Plateau
BC: This picture represents the wilderness and environment the Plateau Peoples lived in. | Authors David Susman, Danielle Lebowitz Kayla Veiner
FC: LIVE N' LIFE IN THE PLATEAU | KAYLA, DAVID AND DANIELLE
1: Table of Contents | Page 1) Arrival of the Europeans Page 3) Geographic Location Page 5) Transportation Page 7) Shelter Page 9) Origin Beliefs Page 11) Special Events Page 13) Social Structure Page 15) Food Sources and Examples Page 17) Hunting Page 19) Clothing Page 21) Art Page 23) Tools Page 25) Weapons Page 27) Role of Men Page 29) Role of Women Page 31) Bibliography
2: Arrival of the Europeans When the Europeans arrived to the plateau region they were welcomed by a great ceremony. Chief introduced his father who was blind and decrepit. They put a great amount of effort into introducing the Europeans. The Plateau Peoples gave presents for example: salmon, berries, oil, roots, and the meat of six dogs. They all sang songs and danced for the Europeans. All the children in the village were affected by the arrival of their new friends. The people got new diseases the they had no cure for and they died. This just shows how bringing two different ways of life together can have a big effect on life. | 1
3: This is a historical picture of the arrival of the Europeans.
4: Geographic Location The plateau region is split between the United States of America and Canada, but mostly Canada. It is located in British Columbia. The plateau is made up of lowlands, basins, plains, and trenches. In the winter it gets cold in the area, and in summer it gets really hot. There are many different types of landforms, vegetation and natural resources in the plateau for example: flowers, Mentone, alpine, sedges, grass lands, shrubs, subalpine, Douglas fur, lodge pole pine, cattle dairy, fruits, vegetables, gold, lead, silver, zinc, copper, sulfur, gypsum, and finally ice caps. | 3
5: This map indicates the location of the plateau region in Canada.
6: TRANSPORTATION Canoes were very commonly used by the Plateau Peoples. The Plateau Peoples owned a lot of different types of canoes. They built dugout canoes called “sturgeon nosed” or “ram-shaped canoes.” Canoes were built so no water could come in large bodies of water. Dugout canoes were made out of red cedar or cottonwood trees, or bar from pine or birch. Lacing for canoes were made from deer, caribou or moose hide. Canoes were mostly used on lakes. The sturgeon-nosed design could travel on more turbulent rivers in the area. The Plateau Peoples used canoes every time they traveled through water. Animals were very useful in the life of the Plateau Peoples. Horses started to in the 1730s in the Canadian Plateau. The horses improved travel of the Plateau Peoples. Horses were uses as pack animals. They carried people but the Ktunaxa People were the first people to use the horses. The Ktunaxa saddles were made out of wood covered with rawhide and sewn with siew. Dogs were used as pack animals. They were only used for hunting deer. Animals were really important when it came to traveling far or short distances in the time of the Plateau Peoples. There weren't that many ways to travel in the winter. The Plateau Peoples used snowshoes to travel through deep snow. When there wasn't much snow they just usually walked or sometimes they used snow dogs to pull them through the snow. There were rounder “bear paw” snowshoes which were used to carry heavy loads. Even though there weren't that many ways to travel in the winter the ways that they were able to travel was very useful. | 5
7: These are pictures of all the transportation that the Plateau Peoples had.
8: SHELTER The Plateau Peoples moved a lot in search for food, so they needed shelters that they could put up and take down easily. The Plateau Peoples lived in 3 kinds of shelters depending on the season; a pit house, a teepee or a tule-mat lodge. The Pit House The pit house was used mostly during the winter but sometimes it was used all year round. A pit house was a shelter built mostly underground with an entrance and a ladder at the top. Constructing a Pit House When you construct a pit house you have to dig 1-2 meter deep pit into the ground, using a wooden stick or an elk scapula shovel. The walls and frame was built with logs and covered with dirt and grass. The roof was made from wooden poles and covered with layers of timber, bark and earth. An entrance to a pit house is usually a ladder that goes through a hole in the roof. Some pit houses had an entrance on the side. Most pit houses were 8-10 meters in diameter but chief's houses could be twice the size. The Teepee The Plateau Peoples used the teepees in the summer. Teepees were always built above ground. The teepees that the Plateau People built were similar to the teepees that the Plain Peoples built. Mostly Ktunaxa people built the teepees. The frame of a teepees was built from wood. The Plateau Peoples covered the teepees with tule reed mats. The Tule Mat Lodge The tule mat lodge is a summer shelter. This shelter is large and its an oblong-shaped teepee. It's also constructed using the materials as a tepees has a wooden frame also just like a teepees and it even is covered with mats of tule. The Plateau Peoples traveled a lot and had great shelters to shelter in. | 7
9: Tule-mat lodge | Tipi
10: 11 | Special Events On every special occasion there was usually a special event. An important time for the Plateau Peoples was spring. In spring they had lots of special events and they had ceremonies to mark the first salmon run or the appearance of the barriers. At special events there was lots of music and dancing used to summon up religious powers. Special events usually involved a lot of singing. The Plateau Peoples used lots of instruments in their special events. The Plateau Peoples used special events to mark spots in their lives and sometimes even at the beginning of seasons.
11: This is the Natives at a special event.
12: Coyote Creates Human Beings The Plateau Peoples had many myths and legends that were passed on through generation, many involving a creator called coyote. The Plateau Peoples also believed that the coyote was responsible for bringing salmon up the river every spring and fall, and for transforming people into their present day form. A monster came down from the north. He was a huge monster and ate everything in sight. Coyote couldn't find any friends and this got him very mad. Coyote went across the Snake River and tied himself to the highest peak in the Wallowa Mountains. Then he called out for the monster on the other side of the river. He challenged the monster to try to eat him. The monster tried as hard as he could to get the coyote down. But the coyotes rope was to strong. The coyote scared the monster. The monster decided to become friends with Coyote. Then he invited the coyote to come over for his house. One day the coyote asked the monster if he could see the animals in the monsters belly. The monster said ,"Ok " and the coyote went in to his belly. He saw all the animals were safe and he told them to get ready to escape. He built a fire inside the monsters belly. Then he took his knife and cut the monster's heart out. The monster died a terrible death and all the animals escaped including coyote. Coyote said in honor of this event he will create a new animal the human being. Coyote cut the monster into 4 pieces then he through the 4 pieces into 4 winds going into the 4 direction. Some pieces landed in the north, some in the south, and others in the east and west. In the valleys and along the rivers a tribe was born. This is the way that all the tribes were born. This is the way that all the tribes and people were born. | 9
14: 13 | Social Structure The Plateau Natives' social structure is very interesting. In their villages the hunting and fishing grounds belonged to the whole entire village to use. The Plateau Natives were nomadic so that means that they always moved from place to place. Their society was democratic and all the men got a say in all major decisions. The chiefs got even more power than the men when decisions affected the village. The salmon chief was in charge of all the fishing in the village. Their society was communal and free of classes. In the Natives' villages their chiefs were chosen for different roles. There were one or more leaders and chiefs. The Plateau Natives' social structure has a lot of interesting features.
15: This picture is a picture of one of theThis is a small picture that represents naturethis is a picture of the people coming chiefs in the village. | This is one of the chiefs in one of the plateau villages | This is all of the people in a plateau village coming together to work
16: Food Sources The Natives worked hard to make, hunt and prepare their food. Men and women worked hard to feed their family. The main animals that they used to hunt were: coyote, fox, raccoon, porcupine, marten, weasel, beaver, marmot, and rabbit (hare). The men were trained to hunt white hair deer and the professional hunters hunted bears and mountain goat. An important food for the Plateau Peoples was the Pacific salmon from their local rivers and lakes which they shared with the entire village. They also fished for steelhead, trout, sturgeon, suckers, and lampreys. The women were in charge of picking wild berries. After they gathered the berries they would dry them for the winter. The women also would pick bulblike roots called Kouse plant. They were eaten raw. Another food was camas root which was ground up and boiled to make mush or cake. The women also collected roots, pine nuts, and medical herbs. In the spring, they gathered sunflowers, bitterroot, and camas which they ate fresh or dried for later use. Buffalo was one of the hardest animals to hunt it usually took 2 years to get there, hunt the buffalo, and get home. There were many animals in the plateau region, so there was a lot of food to hunt. | 15
17: Berry | Fox | Pacific Salmon | White-tailed deer | Caribou
18: There are many animals in the plateau region. The Plateau Natives mostly hunted deer and caribou. All the men were expected to hunt for white tailed deer. All the men that acquired physical and spirituals abilities became professional hunters. They were the ones who hunted bears and mountain goat. The Plateau Peoples got most of their food from fishing. When a man needed to catch fish he would use a harpoon. The most important fish the Plateau Peoples. | HUNTING | 17
19: This is a picture of a plateau person with his deer that he killed during hunting.
20: Clothing The Natives worked hard to make their clothes. They had different clothing for men, woman and children. The women were responsible for making all the clothing for their families. They made dresses, leggings, shirts, jackets and robes. The women wore skirts and dresses and would wear moccasins. The men wore legging made from grasses and animal skin. The women and some men would decorate their clothing withh dentalia shells, ocher paint, porcupine quills, seeds, and feathers. They would also paint on the clothing. Common paint symbols were: red ocher lines, drawn along the seams for good luck. A blue cross represented the morning star. A blue circles represented clouds. Red dots represented stars and a red cross represented the sun. If the men decorated their clothing they used dyes from clays and plants. Since winter was very cold in the plateau, they needed to make clothing that would keep them warm. They used animal skin and animal fur to add to make their clothing warmer. The men also wore leather parts to keep warm. In the summer, they wore woven clothing, when animal skin was not available they also wore these clothing during rainy seasons. The men and women wore moccasins. These were made out of deerskin, and sometimes even salmon skin. They were also decorated with beads or paint. Something the Plateau Peoples wore was headdresses. They wore there headdresses for celebration and ceremonies. The Native Peoples in the plateau had many different clothes depending on the weather, season, and gender. | 19
21: grass skirt | deerskin dress | leather shirt | Deerskin moccasins | headdress
22: ART The Plateau Peoples did a lot of artwork in their lives. In the time of the Plateau Peoples rock paintings and pictographs were very common. They also painted paintings of humans and animals or spiritual pictures. The paint that they used was made out of red ocher pigments mixed with animal or fish heads. They decorated their clothing with paint and beads. A hobby for lots of women was weaving baskets, mats and bags. Not all women did as a hobby some just did it when the needed a basket, mat or a bag. Some women didn't like weaving and hardly weaved at all. Most carvings were made from stone; the carvings that were made from stone were usually a carving of animals like birds and bears or humans. Carving could be really tall or super short. The Plateau Peoples did a lot to do with art in their lives. Muchof the artwork that they made hundreds or maybe even thousands of years ago we still have today and some of them we've recreated into artwork that’s more modern but still has the same idea behind it. | 21
23: Thia a picture of a basket that someone wove. | This a a picture of a rock painting that someone in the plateau region made.
24: TOOLS Tools were very important in the Plateau Peoples' lives. Tools were made from bone, wood and stone. Tools were decorated with carvings, copper feathers and beads. The Ktunaxa people sometimes used feathers and coloured cloth to decorate their spheres. The Plateau Peoples decorated their spheres really nicely with lots of different things. Some tools were used for thing that we use today. Most of the tools they used have changed over the years. The Plateau Peoples used different tools for different things each tool was used for a different reason and each one was made in a different way. The Plateau Peoples used lots of tools for different things. Just like we do, the Plateau Peoples used fishing rods for fishing. Some tools that the Plateau Peoples had were considered as weapons and they could use a tool as a weapon. | 23
25: This is a fishing rod that the Plateau Peoples used. | This is a fish trap that the Plateau Peoples used.
26: Weapons I wonder what kinds of weapons the Plateau Natives use for hunting and killing? Apparently, all the men used a double curved or flat bow and arrows. They also used spears, harpoons, clubs, bolts, and slings. The main weapon the Natives used was a bow and arrows. They used nets, dead falls, snares, lassos, pits, and game corals. They also drove animals over cliffs, hit them with fire or jabbed them with spears from canoes in the water. Arrowheads, knives, and scrapers were made from obsidian, bone, and antlers. The obsidian knife was very sharp and delicate they also used pebbles to make equipment. | 25
27: Plateau Natives' Weapons
28: Role of Men Men had a very important role in their family's lives. Men were the decision makers of their families. Men were responsible for hunting and finding food to feed their families. Men were also responsible for trapping their food and mostly for fishing. The hard thing for men was their tools for hunting. The men did not buy their tools. They had to make their own tools for hunting. The men also had to fight in wars to protect their tribe. Men were so important in their families and tribes that without them they would starve. | 27
29: A man fishing for salmon
30: Role of Women Woman in the plateau region were very important in the families. Women were responsible for: preparing food, harvesting plants, like different kinds of berries and roots and drying them. The women were also responsible for cooking their family's meal. But women did not hunt. Women were usually at home so they were responsible for taking care of their children. Without women the Plateau Peoples' children would not have clothing because the women were also responsible for making clothing . The women were very important in their families and tribes . | 29
31: Woman in the plateau drying berries
32: 1. “Canada’s first nations: Native Civilization.” February 15. 2012. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history plateau 2. "Canada's First Nations: Native Civilisations." Home. 2000. Web. 29/ Mar/ 2012.
33: 9. “The plateau People - food/hunting/ Tools” 2007. Goldi Productions. February 22 2012. http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_plateau3.html 10. “The plateau People-food/hunting/ Tools” 2007. Goldi Productions. February 27 2012. http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_plateau3.html 11. "The Plateau People - Food / Hunting / Tools." First Peoples of Canada Before Contact Menu. Goldi Productions, 2007. Web. 19 Mar. 2012.