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Lyndon B. Johnson

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BC: Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969

FC: TIME A Tribute to Lyndon B. Johnson | INSIDE: -LBJ Pre-Presidency / Early Life -Term in Office -Life After Presidency

1: Pre-Presidency By, Kelsie Kirchartz On August 27, 1908, a baby was born. Little did anybody know at the time, but this baby would one day become President of the United States. This baby, names Lyndon Baines Johnson, otherwise known as LBJ, was born to Sam Ealy Johnson Jr. and Rebekah Baines Johnson at Stonewall, Texas. At age four, Johnson began attending Junction School, and in September of 1913, Johnson began attending public

2: school in Johnson City. On May 4 of 1924, Johnson graduated from Johnson City High School and immediately started performing odd jobs in California and Texas until 1927. In late March of 1927, he began his attendance of Southwest State Teacher’s College (now Texas State University) at San Marcos, Texas, and graduated on August 19 of 1930. From 1929-1930, Johnson served as the principal and a teacher at Welhausen School in Cotulla, Texas. Shortly after, on November 29, 1931, Johnson served as a secretary to Congressman Richard Kleberg, up until 1935. On a fateful day, November 17, 1930, Johnson married his sweetheart, Claudia Alta “Lady Bird” Taylor. From 1935 to 1937, he served as the Texas Director of the National Youth Administration, and in 1937 he began his term as a US Representative for the 10th Congressional District of Texas. In 1941, W. Lee “Pappy” O’Daniel narrowly defeated Johnson in special election for the US Senate. Also in 1941, Lyndon Johnson wall called to Active Navy Duty and was awarded the Silver Star. While he was overseas, Lady Bird ran the Congressional office. Two years after his return, on Marc h 19, 1944, Lyndon and Claudia had their first daughter, Lynda Bird Johnson. Their second daughter, Luci Baines Johson, was born on July 2, 1947. By November 2, 1948, Johnson had earned himself a new nickname: “Landslide

3: Johnson began the hearings on the American Space Programs as Chairman of the Senate Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee. Johnson made an impact on the formation of NASA as well, because he guided the legislation through the Senate. At the Democratic National Convention on July 14, 1960, Johnson accepted the nomination as Kennedy’s running mate for Vice President of the United States. | Lyndon”. This resulted in his defeat of the Republican candidate, Jack Porter, in the general election to win the Senate seat that had been leftopen by W. Lee “Pappy” O’Daniel, his former competitor. His nickname though, came from his victory by 87 votes in the primary election. Johnson was given the title of Minority Leader of the Senate in 1953, and the Majority Leader in 1955. Also in 1955, Johnson suffered a nearly fatal heart attack. In October of 1957,

4: injustice, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed. Signed on July 2, this outlawed discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, or sex in public accommodations such as hotels, theaters, parks, restaurants and other public places. The subject of discrimination which was an important domestic issue for | Domestic Issues By: Ryan Michael Joyce While every President must deal with foreign affairs in order to keep a mature level of world peace, they must also concentrate and deal with domestic issues. Throughout Lyndon B. Johnson’s Presidency from November 22, 1963 to January 20, 1969, he dealt with many domestic issues. Johnson had an idea for “The Great Society” in which he visited Michigan University and stated his beliefs to end poverty and racial injustice. He spoke of this “Great Society” as a place where every child can find knowledge to enrich his mind and believed it should carry out to America’s cities, countryside’s and classrooms. Resulting from Johnson’s dream for and end to racial

5: years was finally being dealt with in a positive manner. While many Americans lived a terrible life in poverty, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act on August 20, 1964, with hopes of putting an end to the “War on Poverty”. In support of helping those living in poverty, Johnson signed the Food Stamp Act on August 31, 1964, which established the Federal food stamp program to help poor families improve their diet. A program which was started during Johnson’s Presidency to better the domestic issue of poverty is still “alive and well in 2008”. Along with Johnson’s other plans to better the United States of America, he signed the Wilderness Act on September 3, 1964, which preserved 9,200,000 acres as a Federal wilderness system. Not only was President Johnson concerned about preserving wilderness, he worked to preserve and ensure our

6: voting rights also. On March 15, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered “The American Promise” speech, which asked for a bill which would preserve the American right to vote. Receiving what he asked for, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 empowered the Federal government to oversee voter registration and elections, outlawed literacy tests and allowed non-English speaking American voting rights. In the year of 1965, Johnson did a lot to ensure public safety and a batter America. In July, he worked to improve Medicare and Medicaid for older Americans. Throughout this time he also passed the Water Quality Act, Highway Beautification Act and the Higher Education Act. | Nearly one year later, President Johnson established the Department of Transportation while still working to better America, he passed the Air Quality Act of 1867 which fought air pollution. Although the government noticed the issue many years ago, air pollution is still something our environment suffers today. On April 11, 1968, he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which provided Americans with fair housing. The Gun Control Act of 1968, a very important and debatable topic was passed in 1968. This regulated the firearm industry and owners and can be related to today’s society and the conservatries over the right to bare arms.

8: Foreign Policy By: Sam Polons Every President faces numerous foreign disputes to settle throughout their term, and President Lyndon B. Johnson was no exception. On January 9, 1964, just two months after he became President, riots broke out in Panama because an American flag was raised in the canal zone. He waited until things calmed down, and negotiated with Panama so that on April 3, problems were patched up between the two countries. The next major problem Johnson faced was the Gulf of Tonkin Incident which took place from August 2 to August 10 of 1964. When the American ships were believed to be attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin by the North Vietnamese, President Johnson wanted action. The first incident took place on August 2, 1964 and the second incident took place on August 10, 1964. Johnson also signed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 10, 1964, which gave him power to use military force in Southeast Asia without needing Congress's approval of a declaration of war. On that day, President Johnson received a large amount of power. To help Southeast Asia, Johnson talked about “Peace Without Conquest” at John Hopkins University. In this speech, he talked about economically developing Southeast Asia. On the same day, April 7, 1965, Johnson delays President Ayub of Pakistan and Prime Minister Shastri of India's visits to the US because he feared that they

9: may disrupt foreign assistance legislation. It is clear to see that Johnson was always looking to better the future. Despite Johnson's efforts to bring “Peace Without Conquest,” he South Vietnam needed help. They did not have enough troops so on July 28, 1965, Johnson ordered to send 50,000 more troops to Vietnam. Like the Presidents before him, the war in Vietnam continued to be a problem. Unfortunately, Vietnam was not the only foreign problem for Johnson. On March 7, 1966, France withdraws on the military segments of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Losing France was difficult because the US was then worried about the future of NATO and how much Europe would remain a part of it. On January 27, 1967, Johnson signed a Treaty on Outer Space. Like Johnson, 60 other nations also signed it. This treaty regulated the exploration of outer space as well as how other countries | used outer space. Johnson's work here protected what America hoped to some know a lot more about. On January 27, 1967, Johnson signed a Treaty on Outer Space. Like Johnson, 60 other nations also signed it. This treaty regulated the exploration of outer space as well as how other countries used outer space. Johnson's work here protected what America hoped to some know a lot more about. War broke out in the Middle East between Israel and Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The war only lasted from June 5, 1967 to June 10, 1967 and became known as “The Six-Day War.” During this time, Johnson talked to Soviet Premier Alexsei Kosygin by using the “Hot Line” for the first time. This allowed the two of them to be quickly in contact with each other. In six short days, a US Navy communications ship was attacked off the Sinai coast. Was this like the | Gulf of Tonkin Incident? Thankfully the answer was no because Israel assured the US that it was an accident. Although it was only six days, the war had an immense impact. On January 23, 1968, another US Navy communications ship was attacked and captured. This time, it was not an accident. The USS Pueblo was captured by North Korea, causing more trouble for the US in Asia. North Korea finally released the crew in December of the same year. One week later Johnson faced more trouble when the Tet Offensive began. This made things harder for the US in the war. The continual attacks on towns and cities were devastating. Thousands of people were being injured and killed and the hope of ending to war soon was demolished. Johnson needed to find a way to defeat North Vietnam soon, but he did not know

11: how. All of the US efforts in the war seemed useless. The war was resulting in so many deaths so in May of 1968, “Paris peace talks” began. In order to keep nuclear weapons from being in control of every control and a fear in every war, Johnson signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Fifty-eight other countries signed the treaty which worked to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. Shortly after this treaty, on August 21, 1968 Johnson orders Soviet troops to leave Czechoslovakia after the Soviets invaded it on the same day. Unfortunately, this invasion delayed Johnson's effort to reduce troop strength in Europe. President Johnson has one final action during his term in office. Although early in his term in office he sent 50,000 more troops to Vietnam, on October 31, 1968, he commanded a stop to all bombings in North Vietnam. Johnson is trying to spread peace as he has throughout his term by the signing of several treaties. He endured many hard times and fought hard to stop the spread of Communism, showing he cared for his country, as well as other countries around the the world.

12: Lyndon B. Johnson’s Post Presidency By: Nick Dominick Following the inauguration of Richard Nixon on January 20, 1969 Lyndon Johnson returned home to his LBJ ranch in Texas. Later in that year, former president Johnson attended the launching of Apollo 11 on July 16, 1969 at Cape Kennedy, Florida. The successful landing on the moon of Apollo 11 and the success of having the first American’s landing on the moon fulfills the goals which Johnson had previously mentioned. | These specific goals had been expressed in his memorandum to President John F. Kennedy, on April 28, 1961. Years later on May 22, 1971, former president Johnson also attended the dedication of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum in Austin, Texas. Also throughout his retirement, former president Lyndon B. Johnson wrote his memoirs in a book and called the book The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963-1969. | Johnson’s book was published on November 1, 1971. Lyndon B. Johnson’s short retirement sadly ended when he died at the LBJ ranch on January 22, 1973. He is now buried in the family cemetery at the ranch near his birthplace.

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