S: Middle East
BC: References: Ager, S.A. (2011). Ainu. Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ainu.htm Ainu. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2244.html Anitei, S.A. (2008). 9 amazing things about the ainu people. Retrieved from http://news.softpedia.com/news/9- Amazing-Things-About-the-Ainu-People-79277.shtml Hirano, K.H. (2007, October 13). Ainu hope u.n. move aids indigenous status quest. Retrieved from http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20071013f1.html Thomason, A.T. (1999). The ainu of japan: the history, culture, and discrimination against this aboriginal group. Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/fourth_world/22057/1 The ainu people of japan. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.japan-101.com/culture/culture_ainu.htm The ainu, their land and culture. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.workingdogweb.com/Ainu.htm Worldfocus, . (2010, February 22). Japan’s indigenous ainu people struggle to keep way of life [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://worldfocus.org/blog/2010/02/22/japans-indigenous-ainu-people-struggle-to-keep-way-of-life/9780/ | Pictures: http://www.freeworldmaps.net/asia/japan/hokkaido.html http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/Ainu.html http://exhibits.slpl.org/lpe/data/LPE240023058.asp?thread=240029402 http://www.japanfocus.org/-Simon-Cotterill/3500 http://www.cryptomundo.com/cryptozoo-news/ainu/ http://bintphotobooks.blogspot.com/2009/02/old-photographs-of-japan-photography.html http://theacidsweatlodge.blogspot.com/2008/11/feast-rituals.html http://indigenousboats.blogspot.com/2010/05/boats-of-ainu-of-hokkaido.html http://outsiderjapan.pbworks.com/w/page/9758533/The-Ainu http://foreign-lens.blogspot.com/2009/02/japanese-people.html | Alyssa Gascho
FC: Middle East | By: Victoria Hobden Alyssa Gascho and Abby Scheerer
1: Summary | The Kalasha are a tribe of 4,000 people, that are found in the Chitral District in the North West Frontier on the west end of Pakistan. To this day they have resisted to convert to Islam. They take part in Hinduism. Their culture is based on on agriculture, which is mainly worked by women, the husbands take care of the animals. Goats are scared in there beliefs. They are considered gifts from god. They also have fields that they take care of. They would rather have peaceful lives then to have war with other tribes or within there tribe. www.everyculture.com?South-Asia/Kalsha.com | The Kurd tribe is located in Kurdistan the mountainous region in Southwest Asia where the boarders of Iran, Iraq, and Turkey meet. The population is about 5-22 million people who are struggling to be an independent country and they are the second-largest ethnic group in Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. When Turkey colonized, the history of Kurdistan was completely erased but today they continue to press forward. (everyculture.com, 2011) | This is a map showing the location of Kurdistan. | S | The Ainu tribe lives in the northern island of Hokkaido. Throughout their history they have experienced many hardships when Japan seized their land, outlawed their hunting and religious practices, and banned the Ainu language.Ainu means "human, or being opposite of the gods" and the Ainu people regard things as being beyond their control as "kamuy" (gods). In their daily lives they perform various ceremonies for the gods; which include the nature gods (fire, water, wind, and thunder), the animal gods (bears, foxes, spotted owls, and grampuses), the plant gods (aconite, mushroom, and mugwort), object gods (boats and pots), and gods that protect the houses, gods of the mountains and gods of the lakes. | www.mcclatchydc.com/
2: Tribes | The Kalasha economy is based on agriculture, which is mainly women's work, the men take care of the animals The people grow wheat and maize. Goats are sacred. (http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html) | The Kurd tribe doing a traditional dance. | The Kurds constantly struggle to be independent but since they are in the middle of so many controlling countries it is nearly impossible. (washingtonpost.com, 1999) | The daily activities for women are to cook, garden, fish, gather medicinal plants and to make clothing. Men hunt, fish and carve. The shaman plays a big part in the Ainu culture and it is acceptable for both men and women to be shamans. The shaman’s main function is to cure diseases and casts spells that have been given to him or her from the spirits. | www.orient.uw.edu.pl
3: Shelter | The Kalasha's unique housing, stack their houses to minimize space. They are located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The Kalash people live in three isolated mountain valleys. These valleys are opening towards the Kunar River. There located impacts the way there houses are bulit. (http://www.globalpost.com) | Typical Kurdistan house is made of mud bricks and wooden roofs. | If a child gets married, they sometimes live in the same house with different housekeeping arrangements. In the colder months they sleep inside but in the summer they sleep on the roof. | The Ainu live in reed thatched huts that have a fireplace in the centre and the smoke escapes from a tiny hole at the tip of the roof. Instead of using furniture they sit on mats, and to eat the men use chop-sticks and moustache lifters while women use wooden spoons.
4: Dress and Adornment | These are Kalasha women in the Chitral Valley, Pakistan. The women wear vibrant-colored embroidered dresses and beaded headdresses called “susutr". With their light coloring — some even have blue eyes — the Kalasha are rumored to be the descendants of Alexander the Great’s army. http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html | Kalasha men wear very basic coloured garments. They only wear colourful items during festivals. During festivals they will sometimes wear beads, other men prefer not to wear them at all. http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html | www.cnngo.com | www.cnngo.com
5: Kurdish women clothing <- Kurdish men clothing -> | The traditional clothing of Kurdish women is a colourful blouse and skirt. Men's traditional clothing are baggy and colourful pants. Their shirt is plain and it has full sleeves. They also have vests and sashes that are worn over the shirt The wore silk turbans that were usually blue and it was not uncommon to see men with daggers in their belt. The sighting of the traditional clothing is very rare. (everyculture, 2011) | Ainu women clothing <--- Ainu men clothing ---> | Some Ainu garments are made from skin, fur and feathers, and salmon skin is highly valued because it can make strong, durable, light waterproof garments.The men don’t shave after a certain age; therefore they have full beards and moustaches. The women tattoo their mouths to look like a beard, because beards are considered beautiful. The traditional worn dress for women is a robe spun from the bark of an elm tree.
6: R e l i g i o n | A Muslim mosque in Kurdistan. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslim and about 1/5 are Shi'ite Muslim. (everyculture.com, 2011) | For Spirituality they are animistic and bears are very important to their culture. Bears are considered to be powerful spirits that are for the benefit of the people. When a bear cub is captured by the Ainu a woman is to take care of it as a child. The bear will live and grow with them until it is 2-3 years old, of which then it is sacrificed (the men will drink its blood to get its power). | The Kalasha are a tribe of about 4,000, found in the Chitral District in North-West Frontier Province, on the western edge of Pakistan. They are unique among the tribes of the Hindu Kush in one respect: to this day they have resisted conversion to Islam. (Pakistan is 98 percent Muslim.) Instead they practice a form of Hinduism. (http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html) | (www.bexleyheath.re.2itb.com)
7: Making A Living | Kurdish farmers. | The Kurdish men make a living by farming. They are usually goat and sheep herders and they sell sell leather, goat cheese and wool. Some also grow cotton. The women do not work but instead weave carpets (everyculture, 2011) | Currently the Ainu live by hunting, fishing, farming, and by the money they make off of tourists who buy their handmade crafts. | The Kalasha economy is based on agriculture, which is mainly women's work, and transhumant animal husbandry. The people grow maize, wheat, and millets on small irrigated fields. Goats are not only the main animal herded, they are also sacred: they are considered the gift of the gods.the Kalash are now moving towards a cash-based economy, capitalizing on tourism and trade. http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html | www.silkroadchina-and-northernpakistan.blogspot.com
8: Governmental Impact | The Kurdistan government, the KRG, is really trying to help the Kurdish people by promoting womens rights, remaining peaceful with their neighbours and fixing the problems between Baghdad and Erbil. (krg.org, 2009) | Kurdistan Flag | One movement the government has took to ensure protection of the Ainu people was in 1899 when the Hokkaido Aborigine Protection Act was created specifically to protect their land. | Ainu Flag | The Kalasha people have a very small number in the tribe, because of this the government is not a big part in there tribe. Also because the limited amount of them there is not a sufficient amount of information at the current time.
9: NGO's Who Support | The children of Kurdistan are pleading to go to get proper education and since it isn’t taught in Kurdish they find it too difficult to learn and eventually drop out. The boys are the only ones that can take school and the girls stay at home which makes the literacy rate even lower. This organization helps the future of children's lives. (ksc-kcf.org, 2008) | "We work for the benefit of all children, and run projects nationwide to improve, develop, and support the lives of children." is the motto for KSC. | The Ainu Association of Hokkaido works towards preserving the Ainu culture and protecting their land. | Tadashi Kato, the chief of the Ainu Association of Hokkaido (Hirano, 2007) | The foundation for Endargered Languages helps tribes that are very small to still keep there languages alive. The Kalasha tribe is so small in size (only 3,800) they need this organization to keep there language going. | http://www.ogmios.org/home.htm | www.cnngo.com
10: Contemporary Issues | Urban Ainu now face problems such as alcoholism, homelessness, and violence. Most of them do not own any land because when their land was declared "owner-less" it was offered to the settlers, so their land is very limited. | As Kurdistan is attempting to become independent they had an election and it turned out to be a positive move within Kurdistan but there are still issues with the surrounding countries. (everyculture.com, 2011) | A newspaper cover that announces the voting in Kurdistan: | In Recent the situations the Kalasha Tribe has somewhat improved through the building of schools in some valleys, which Kalasha children can attend. In the late 1970s some roads were also built into the area. As a result there has been an increase in tourism and timber exploitation, which have not really benefited the Kalasha this far. | http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html
11: Works Cited | Every Culture (2011) Kalasha Retrieved fromhttp://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Kalasha.html Every Culture (2011). Kurds: Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage, Relationships, Living conditions. Retrieved from www.everyculture.com Global post - kalasha tribe. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/pakistan/090225/the-fate-the-kalasha Kurdish Harold (August 2009). Iraqui Kurdistan Votes. Retrieved from www.kurdishharold.com Kurdistan Save the Children (2008). Retrieved from www.ksc-kcf.org Ogmios . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ogmios.org/home.htm Washington Post (1999). Washingtonpost.com: Terrorism Report. Retrieved from www.washingtonpost.com Suite101 (March 8, 2008). The Kurds: History and Culture of the Kurdish People. Retrieved from www.suite101.com | Pictures | www.mcclatchydc.com/ www.orient.uw.edu.pl www.cnngo.com www.silkroadchina-and-northernpakistan.blogspot.com www.bexleyheath.re.2itb.com