BC: The End
FC: By: Taylor Savage Period 6 Mrs. Kelly | The Nervous System
1: This Mixbook will cover information on the whole nervous system. The things it will cover are the Medulla Oblongata, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, The Spinal Cord, and damages to the brain. This information will help you to learn what happens to these parts of the Nervous system.
2: The wires in the body are called Nerves. Nerves are made up of smaller wires that carry messages through the body. The tiny wires are made up of cells. The Nerve cells are called Neurons. A Neuron has a cell body and several connecting fibers. The cell body contains the Nucleus which is surrounded by Cytoplasm. Protoplasm is the essential living matter of all cells. The fibers that bring messages are called Dendrites. A large nerve fiber is called an Axon which carries the messages away from the cell body. The Axon branches into smaller branches called End Plates. Messages travel in only one direction. | The NEURON
3: When a nerve message travels through a Neuron towards the end plate a new message is made in the next Neuron the neurons don't touch. When a message travels it goes through a space called a synapse. A synapse helps with keeping the messages going one way and not going different ways to mess up the Nervous system. Some Neurons a fatty layer around them called a Myelin sheath. It helps keep the other messages from going to another neuron. The neurons that have the fatty substance is called White matter and the ones without are called Gray matter. Axons can also have a covering called a Neurilemma. The neurilemma helps grow another axon that a cell body can't. Three types of neurons are sensory,motor, and association nerves. The sensory neurons carry fro the sense organ to the spinal cord. The motor neurons carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to muscles. Association neurons connect the sensory and motor neuron. These neurons inform the brain about whats going on in the body. | More Neurons
4: Reflex | A doctor will check your reflex by tapping on your knee and your exstensor muscle. The word Reflex means to "turn back." This reflex is involuntary. Reflexes are very imp9ortnt they help us every day in our lives.
6: Central Nervous System | The main parts of the nervous system is the brain and spinal cord. If certain parts of the brain gets injured you wont be able to speak, think, or feel. If the Spinal cord gets severed from there and below you would be paralyzed. The three big areas of the brain are called Cerebru, Cerebellu, and Medulla Oblongata. The Cerebrum controls muscles, is the top of the brain, and receives sensory messages. The Cerebellum is below and behind the Cerebrum. It controls coordinating the muscles. The Medulla Oblongata is the the low part of the brain which connects the Spinal cord. It controls the heart, breathing, and digestion. The skull protects the brain and the vertebrae protect the spinal cord. They both are by meninges and cerebrospinal fluid. They protect nerve tissue.
7: Cerebrum | The cerebrum is made of Gray and White Matter. A fissure divides the brain into to hemispheres. The cortex is folded into ridges that are convolution that increase the surface area. The cortex controls the nervous system. Each part of the cerebral cortex has its own job to do. The motor area of the cortex controls muscles. The motor area is from ear to ear and is two inches wide. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and the left side controls the right. If one side of the cerebrum is damaged the other side of the body will become paralyzed. The nerve messages for touch are found behind the cerebrum. Sight sensations are in the rear of the cerebrum. The lower parts contain smell, speech, hearing, and taste. The knowing of these sensations is called consciousness. So that different parts of the cortex can work nerve cells connect in different areas of the cerebral cortex. Many connections are made by another layer called the Cerebral medulla.
8: The cerebellum, Medulla, and spinal cord. | The cerebellum is found below and behind the Cerebrum. The Cerebellum has layers of white and gray Matter. Its job is to do balance and coordination. If it becomes damaged it will become all weird and unpredictable. The Medulla Oblongata is found at the bottom of the brain. It attaches to the spinal cord and is made of gray and white matter. White matter is on the outside and creates a pathway for nerve messages. Gray matter takes messages out to a muscle or gland. Some cells in the gray matter make it possible for life. Such as breathing, heart, and digestion. The spinal cord is made up of a lot of nerves. There are thirty-one nerves attached to the spinal cord that carry messages to and from the spinal cord. They go to all parts of the body and some go to the brain.
9: Peripheral nervous system | The P.N.S. (Peripheral Nervous System) connects the central nervous system together and to other parts of the body. There are forty-three pairs of peripheral nerves that are large and small ones off of those. Twelve of the forty-three pairs are cranial nerves which connect strait to the brain. The nerves include sight, smell, taste, and balance. The longest nerve is the Vagus nerve. It supplies a nerve connection to most of your internal organs. The other thirty on are called spinal nerves. Some of the nerves go into a category called autonomic nervous system. They control digestion, respiration, and circulation. Some of cranial and spinal nerves are cranial nerves. There are two categories to the autonomic nervous system. One division is called parasympathetic it restricts or slows down activities. The other division is called sympathetic and is an accelerator.
10: Effects | Things that can damage the Nervous system are drugs, alcohol, caffeine, tumors, strokes heart attacks, and many other things. These things can have major affects on the Nervous system such as Brain damage, losing you brain cells, organ failure and other serious things. Damage to the brain over time is when the brain is getting older and your brain cells might not be helping your brain much.