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Mixbook Default Theme Book 8.5x11.0

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S: The road Though time

BC: The Road Continues.......

FC: The road through Time

1: The | Through | Road | Time | By: Jamal Martin and Zekyle Stockdale | 1

2: Manifest Destiny

3: Section | The Man-Made Canal Sub-section | Section | Table of Contents | The Wheels | Section | C.U.T. Sub-section Speed Trains | 2 | Section | THE DONNER PARTY !!! | 3 | Erie Canal Song | 1 | 2 | 4

4: Chapter Vocabulary | *Erie Canal* *harbor* *canal* *channel* *assist* *external source* *surrounded* *Bruce Springsteen* | Section 1

5: The Man-Made Canal | The *Erie Canal* was built in 1817 between Albany and Buffalo. This Canal was built for transporting goods and crops to wherever you go. Unrelated to any *harbor*. A *canal* is a man-made *channel* of water.

6: A canal can be made where no stream presently exists. The body of the canal is either dug or the sides are created by piling dirt, stone, or concrete. Examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land.

7: However, to perform this task it'll take more than one person to *assist*. | The water for the canal must be provided from an *external source* like other streams before it's able to meet. | It is necessary for the canal to be made by a helping hand.

8: I've got a mule and her name is Sal Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal She's a good old worker and a good old pal Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal We haul'd some barges in our day Filled with lumber, coal, and hay We know every inch of the way From Albany to Buffalo Low bridge, everybody down Low bridge, yeah we're coming to a town And you'll always know your neighbor And you'll always know your pal If ya ever navigated on the Erie Canal We'd better look around for a job, old gal Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal You can bet your life I'll never part with Sal Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal | Erie Canal Song Sung by: *Bruce Springsteen*

9: Get up mule, here comes a lock We'll make Rome 'bout six o'clock One more trip and back we'll go Right back home to Buffalo Low bridge, everybody down Low bridge, we're coming to a town You'll always know your neighbor And you'll always know your pal If ya ever navigated on the Erie Canal Where would I be if I lost my pal Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal I'd like to see a mule good as my Sal Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal A friend of mine once got her sore Now he's got a broken jaw 'Cause she let fly with an iron toe And kicked him back to Buffalo

10: Low bridge, everybody down Low bridge 'cause we're coming to a town You'll always know your neighbor And you'll always know your pal If ya ever navigated on the Erie Canal Low bridge, everybody down Low bridge, we're coming to a town You'll always know your neighbor And you'll always know your pal If ya ever made a livin' on the Erie Canal Low bridge, everybody down Low bridge, we're coming to a town You'll always know your neighbor And you'll always know your pal If ya ever navigated on the Erie Canal Low bridge, everybody down Low bridge, we're coming to a town Hooo...

11: Bruce Springsteen

12: Section 2 | *Covered Wagon* *Mesopotamia* *Wagon Train* *Sumerians* *Stagecoach* *rollers* *Automobiles* *sledge* *Great Plains* *chariots* archaeologists *freight wagons* *pneumatic* | Chapter Vocabulary

13: The Wheels | *Covered wagons* were used for transporting almost anything across the country. With the invention of wagons the country was coming into a lot of money. When traveling across the country, travelers often made*wagon trains*. Wagon trains were used when traveling across the*great plains*. Wagons moved with the help of a horse. The horse had to be healthy and rested of course.

14: Stagecoach | *Stagecoaches* were the closest wagons to *automobiles*. | Stagecoaches were made of woods, metals, and steels.

15: Between the covered wagon and the stagecoach, the stagecoach is more appealing. | The stagecoach is just more elegant and made with more feeling.

16: Invention of the Wheel The wheel is still a mystery as to who invented the wheel and when the wheel was invented. According to *archaeologists*, it was probably invented around 8,000 B.C. in Asia. However, the oldest wheel known however, was discovered in *Mesopotamia* and probably dates back to 3,500 B.C. *Sumerians* are believed to have made the wheel. It was made of planks of wood joined together. The picture below describes briefly the stages of development of the wheel.

17: Stage one: Men from ancient times placed *rollers* beneath heavy objects so that they could be moved easily. Stage two: Men from ancient times began to place runners under a heavy load, which they discovered would make it easier for the load to drag. This was the invention of the *sledge*. Stage three: Men began to combine the roller and the sledge. As the sledge moved forward over the first roller, a second roller was placed under the front to carry the load when it moved off the first roller.

18: Stage four: Soon, men discovered that the rollers became grooved with each use. They soon discovered that these deep grooves actually allowed the sledge to go a greater distance before the next roller was needed to come on. Stage five: The rollers were changed into wheels. In the process, wood between the grooves of the roller were cut away to form an axle and wooden pegs were fastened to the runners on each side of the axle. When the wheels turned, the axle turned too in the space between the pegs. The first wooden car was then made. Stage six: A slight improvement was made to the cart. This time, instead of using pegs to join the wheels to the axle, holes for the axle were drilled through the frame of the car. Axle and wheels were now made separately.

19: The wheel was furthered improved on later by the Egyptians, who made wheels with spokes, which could be found on Egyptian *chariots* of around 2000 BC. Over in Ancient India, chariots with spoked wheels dating back to around 1500 B.C. were also discovered. The Greeks too, adopted the idea of wheel-making from the Egyptians and made further improvements to it. Later, during the time of the Roman Empire, the Romans too engaged themselves in wheel-making and produced the greatest variety of wheeled vehicles. They had chariots for war, hunting, and racing, two-wheeled farm carts, covered carriages, heavy four-wheeled *freight wagons* and passenger coaches. Today, we see that the wheel has transformed from a simple one made of wood to the *pneumatic* rubber tires that we see on vehicles today. What do you think are the advantages of using rubber tires instead of wooden wheels?

20: Section 3 | The Donner Party | Vocabulary: | *The Donner Party* *migration* *falsified* *bogged* *emigrants* *snowbound* *slaughtered* *malnutrition* *challenging ordeal* *cannibalism* *abandon* *mutilated remains* *perished* *biases* *recollections* *Donner Lake* *Donner Camp*

21: ''My father, with tears in his eyes, tried to smile as one friend after another grasped his hand in a last farewell. Mama was overcome with grief. At last we were all in the wagons. The drivers cracked their whips. The oxen moved slowly forward and the long journey had begun.'' Virginia Reed, daughter of James Reed

24: On April 16, 1846, nine covered wagons left Springfield, Illinois on the 2500 mile journey to California, in what would become one of the greatest tragedies in the history of westward *migration*. James Frasier Reed, an Illinois business man, eager to build a greater fortune in the rich land of California. Tried a new route which enticed travelers by advertising that it would save the pioneers 350-400 miles on easy terrain. | Tragedy of the Donner Party

25: However, what was not known by Reed was that the Hastings Route had never been tested. It was this *falsified* information that would lead to the doom of the Donner Party. The group estimated the trip would take four months to cross the plains, deserts, mountain ranges and rivers in their quest for California. The Donner Party included 87 passengers. On May 25th the train was held for several days by high water at the Big Blue River. It was here that the train would experience its first death, when Sarah Keyes died and was buried next to the river.

27: From right to left

28: James Reed ran into an old friend by the name of James Clyman. Clyman advised Reed not to take the Hastings Route, stating that the road was barely passable on foot and would be impossible with wagons; also warning him of the great desert and the Sierra Nevadas. Though he strongly suggested that the party take the regular wagon trail rather than this new false route, Reed would later ignore his warning in an attempt to reach their destination more quickly. On July 19th the wagon train arrived at the Little Sandy River where the trail parted into two routes – the northerly known route and the untested Hastings Cutoff. Here, the train split, with the majority of the large caravan taking the safer route.

29: August 30th, the group began to cross the Great Salt Lake Desert, believing the trek would take only two days. However, what they didn’t know was that the desert sand was moist and deep, where wagons quickly got *bogged* down, severely slowing their progress. On the third day in the desert, their water supply was nearly exhausted and some of Reed’s oxen ran away. When they finally reached the end of the grueling desert five days later on September 4th, the *emigrants* rested near the base of Pilot Peak for several days. On their eighty mile journey through the Salt Lake Desert, they had lost a total of thirty-two oxen.

30: At Donner Lake, two more attempts were made to get over the pass in twenty feet of snow, until they finally realized they were *snowbound* for the winter. More small cabins were constructed, many of which were shared by more than one family. The weather and their hopes were not to improve. Over the next four months, the remaining men, women, and children would huddle together in cabins On Thanksgiving, it began to snow again, and the pioneers at Donner Lake killed the last of their oxen for food on November 29th.

31: The very next day, five more feet of snow fell, and they knew that any plans for a departure were dashed.Many of their animals, including Sutter’s mules, had wandered off into the storms and their bodies were lost under the snow. A few days later their last few cattle were *slaughtered* for food and the party began eating boiled hides, twigs, bones and bark. Some of the men tried to hunt with little success.

32: On December 15, Balis Williams died of *malnutrition* and the group realized that something had to be done before they all died. The next day five men, nine women and one child departed on snow shoes for the summit, determined to travel the 100 miles to Sutter’s Fort. However, with only meager rations and already weak from hunger, the group faced a *challenging ordeal*.

33: On the sixth day, their food ran out and for the next three days no one ate while they traveled through grueling high winds and freezing weather. One member of the party, Charles Stanton, snow-blind and exhausted was unable to keep up with the rest of the party and told them to go on. He never rejoined the group. A few days later, the party was caught in a blizzard and had great difficulty getting and keeping a fire lit. Four men soon died and in desperation, the others resorted to *cannibalism*.

34: Living off the bodies of those that died along the path to Sutter’s Fort, the snowshoeing survivors were reduced to seven by the time they reached safety on the western side of the mountains on January 19, 1847. Only two of the ten men survived, but all five women lived through the journey. Of the eight dead, seven had been cannibalized. Immediately messages were dispatched to neighboring settlements as area residents rallied to save the rest of the Donner Party. On February 5, the first relief party of seven men left Johnson's ranch, and the second, headed by James Reed, left two days later. On February 19th, the first party reached the lake finding what appeared to be a deserted camp until the ghostly figure of a woman appeared.

35: Twelve of the emigrants were dead and of the forty-eight remaining, many had gone crazy or were barely clinging to life. However, the nightmare was by no means over. Not everyone could be taken out at one time and since no pack animals could be brought in, few food supplies were brought in. The first relief party soon left with 23 refugees, but during the party's travels back to Sutter's Fort, two more children died. In route down the mountains the first relief party met the second relief party coming the opposite way and the Reed family was reunited after five months.

36: On March 1st the second relief party finally arrived at the lake, finding grisly evidence of cannibalism. The next day, they arrive at Alder Creek to find that the Donners had also resorted to cannibalism. On March 3rd, Reed left the camp with 17 of the starving emigrants but just two days later they are caught in another blizzard. When it cleared, Isaac Donner had died and most of the refugees were too weak to travel. Reed and another rescuer took three of the refugees with them hoping to find food they had stored on the way up. The rest of the pioneers stayed at what would become known as "Starved Camp."”

37: On March 12th the third relief led by William Eddy and William Foster reached Starved Camp where Mrs. Graves and her son had also died. The three bodies, including that of Isaac Donner, had been cannibalized. The next day, they arrived at the lake camp to find that two sons had died. On March 14th they arrived at the Alder Creek camp to find George Donner was dying from an infection in the hand that he had injured months before. His wife, though in comparatively good health, refused to leave him; sending her three little girls on without her. The relief party soon departed with four more members of the party, leaving those who were too weak to travel. Two rescuers, Jean-Baptiste Trudeau and Nicholas Clark, are left behind to care for the Donners, but soon *abandon* them to catch up with the relief party..

38: A fourth rescue party set out in late March but were soon stranded in a blinding snow storm for several days. On April 17th, the relief party reached the camps to find only Louis Keseberg alive among the *mutilated remains* of his former companions. Keseberg was the last member of the Donner Party to arrive at Sutter’s Fort on April 29th. It took two months and four relief parties to rescue the entire surviving Donner Party. In the Donner Party tragedy, two-thirds of the men in the party *perished*, while two-thirds of the women and children lived. Forty-one individuals died, and forty-six survived. In the end, five had died before reaching the mountains, thirty-five perished either at the mountain camps or trying to cross the mountains, and one died just after reaching the valley. Many of those who survived lost toes to frostbite.

39: The story of the Donner tragedy quickly spread across the country. Newspapers printed letters and diaries, and accused the travelers of bad conduct, cannibalism, and even murder. The surviving members had differing viewpoints, *biases* and *recollections* so what actually happened was never extremely clear. Some blamed the power hungry Lansford W. Hastings for the tragedy, while others blamed James Reed for not heeding Clyman's warning about the deadly route. *Donner Lake*, named for the party, is today a popular mountain resort near Truckee, California and the *Donner Camp* has been designated as a National Historic Landmark.

40: D | Section 4 | Central Pacific Railroad Union Pacific Railroad Transcontinental Railroad Sacramento, California Omaha, Nebraska Promontory Point, Utah Theodore Dehone Judah Train Speed Train | Vocabulary | C.U.T.

41: C. U. T. | entral | nion | ranscontinental | Railroad | l l l l l

42: The Central Pacific Railroad is connected to the Union Pacific Railroad which together makes the Transcontinental Railroad. The Central Pacific started in Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific started in Omaha, Nebraska. Both connected at Promontory Point, Utah.

47: Chinese *immigrants* worked extremely hard, On the railroads so do not disregard, All the troubles the Chinese went through day and night to make transportation run through a *plateau*. They were regarded as trash, *outcasts*, and a *yellow plague*. At the time the future of non-racism was *vague*. The Chinese not weakened by discouragement, continued to *prosper* even with the lack of encouragement.

48: All of the railroads were important to the United States. In a category of inventions it would be one of the greats. Without the invention of trains, who would've thought of cars? And without cars, who would've explored the surface of Mars? Trains carried goods... vital to the U.S. Today carries people, now who would've guessed. But you haven't seen the best. The next sub-section talks about Speed Trains.Yes!

50: Speed Trains

52: Japan to Build World’s Fastest Train: A 310MPH Maglev Monster

53: China and Japan have been constantly trying to outdo each other when it comes to high-speed rail. Now, the Central Japan Railway Company has announced that it plans to build the world’s fastest train. The train, to be completed in 2027, will travel between Tokyo and Nagoya on a 178 miles rail extension line, estimated to cost about $64 billion. The speedy train will run up to 310 miles per hour, cutting down the hour and half long journey by 40 minutes — the current line runs at about 167 miles per hour.

55: To gain additional speed, the new rail will use magnetic levitation — where powerful magnets elevate the train above the track, cutting down friction. The current high-speed record is held by a Chinese passenger train that traveled 302 miles per hour

57: In 1964 the Japanese were able to produce high speed rails that could reach speeds of over 100 mph. The US and most other European countries now have high speed rail systems. By the 1980s, diesel and electric trains had displaced the steam locomotives. Unlike steam power, electric trains were cheaper and easier to maintain. As technology improved, they also became easier to learn and use. A lot of advances have been made since the early history of the train, but more will come. With high oil prices, it’s widely expected that rail systems will be a dominant form of public transport in the years to come.

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  • Title: Mixbook Default Theme Book 8.5x11.0
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