FC: Westward Expansion by Elliott Reed
1: This is a brief analysis of 12 primary sources on Westward expansion. The following pages will have a primary source picture and a text description. The subject of these pictures include things like the Oregon Trail, Lewis and Clark's expedition, and the Pony express. Enjoy!
3: American Progress This is a painting symbolizing the American spirit of progress leading the pioneers westward. It was painted in 1872 by John Gast, a Brooklyn-based painter and lithographer. Many Americans never saw the original painting, but many encountered a reproduction. Though the detail in it may make it appear to be a large canvas, the original was only about 12-16 inches. | I See 1. I see the sun is in the east. 2. I see the mountains. 3. I see some Natives fleeing. 4. I see a herd of Bison trying to escape. 5. I see a harbor on the far right. | I Think 1. I think the natives are afraid of American progress because it will take away their land. 2. I think the sun is in the east because it symbolizes civilization. 3. I think the clouds are darker on the left because the land there has not been tamed yet. 4. I think the artist made the background smaller because he wanted the journey to seem easy | I Wonder 1. I wonder what book she is carrying? 2. I wonder what harbor is in the background? 3. I wonder why the spirit of progress is a female? 4. I wonder if the sun is supposed to be rising or setting? 5. I wonder if the cable she is carrying is a telegraph wire?
5: Oregon Trail The Oregon trail was a 2,000 mile wagon trail that allowed travel between the Missouri River and the future state of Oregon, along with places in between. The eastern portion of the trail spanned parts of what is now Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming. The western part passed through most of Idaho and ended up in Oregon. | I see 1. I see no trees 2. I see what looks like a cave in the cliff. 3. I see that this trail isn't very clearly marked 4. I see a rock slide at the base of the cliff. 5. I see some numbers at the top of the picture. | I Think 1. I think it would have been hard to stay on the trail because it isn't well-marked. 2. I think it would have been hard to get a fire going because there aren't any trees. 3. I think it would have been hard to fight the natives because they could hide in the tall grass. 4. I think that cave would have been a good place for Native scouts to spy because it has a good view of the trail. 5. I think it would have been really boring being on this trail because there wasn't anything to do. | I wonder 1. I wonder why there aren't any people in the picture? 2. I wonder what the numbers at the top mean? 3. I wonder if pioneers ever got lost because they couldn't find the trail? 4. I wonder when this picture was taken? 5. I wonder how the pioneers got their wagons across the ravines in the picture?
7: Arapaho Camp The Arapaho people lived mostly in present-day Colorado and Wyoming. They were mostly nomadic, following herds of Bison along the plains. Arapaho's were one of the greatest trading peoples of North America, and it is probable that these are traders set up along the side of a wagon trail. | I See 1. I see all the Natives have headgear. 2. I see some blankets that could be on display 3. I see a wagon in the background 4. I see that they are not carrying weapons 5. I see no horses. | I Think 1. I think they must be traders because they have blankets on display. 2. I think they are all important because they have headgear 3. I think the wagon in the background belongs to the person taking the picture because Natives didn't use wagons very much. 4. I think the natives are just arriving at that spot because there is no fire yet. 5. I think that they will be staying there for a while because there are no horses in the picture. | I Wonder 1. I wonder where their horses are? 2. I wonder why there are no women or children with them? 3. I wonder what they are pointing at? 4. I wonder who the wagon belongs to? 5. I wonder when this was taken?
10: Hand-Drawn Native map This was drawn by a native named I Ki Ha Wa He, also known as Little Owl. It is a map of the Missouri River from the North Dakota-South Dakota border to the mouth of the Yellowstone River. This map was originally used by Lewis and Clark on their expedition.
11: I See 1. I see a Native in the drawing 2. I see two Mandan towns 3. I see a herd of Bison being captured 4. I see that the writing is in English 5. I see that the paper isn't that old. | I Think 1. I think the native in the picture is a hunter because he has a bow on his back. 2. I think that this map is not the original because the paper isn't that old. 3. I think that this map is not the original because it is written in English. 4. I think the river is split in the picture because the drawer couldn't fit it all in the space he had. | I Wonder 1. I wonder why the Native hunter is included in the map? 2. I wonder what the strange 4 sided thing at the top is? 3. I wonder how long it took to draw this map? 4. I wonder what Little Owl used for ink? 5. I wonder why there is a stain on the paper?
13: Downtown Denver This is a picture of the main street of Denver in 1898. It was taken by William Henry Jackson. This was probably the main street at the time. | I see 1. What could be the capitol building at the time. 2. I see not many tall buildings 3. I see forest or farmland beyond the city. 4. I see the Rocky mountains in the background 5. I don't see many cars or horses. | I think 1. I think the street is the main street because it is big and straight. 2. I think it would be hard for cars to work well here because of the altitude. 3. I think this is nicer than modern Denver because there aren't any factories yet. 4. I think the photographer was close to the center of town because it looks like a plaza right in front. | I Wonder 1. I wonder if there were many cars in Denver at the time? 2. I wonder if there were many farms around the city? 3. I wonder what the buildings are made out of? 4. I wonder why the street is different colors? 5. I wonder what time of year it is?
15: Railroad Workers This is a picture of some railroad workers. These workers were working on the Union Pacific railroad which would connect the newly explored west with the rest of the U.S. | I see 1. I see they are by a canyon or a cliff 2. I see they are all very tan or have dark skin 3. I see that they appear to be in the middle of nowhere. 4. I see that they are all men. | I think 1. I think that they are in an arid place because of the sand and absence of plants. 2. I think they are probably immigrants from another country because of their dark skin. 3. I think that they could get hot very fast out there because there isn't much shade to cool off in 4. I think it would take work to get back to camp because all they had was the manual cart. | I wonder 1. I wonder where they are? 2. I wonder how much they are getting paid. 3. I wonder where they are from? 4. I wonder what the colored strip on the bottom is for?
17: Blasting through a mountain This is another picture of the Union-pacific railroad. This was probably somewhere in the Rocky mountains. Blasting through the mountains was very dangerous, and many men lost their lives while working on this railroad. | I See 1. I see lots of people. 2. I see that many of the people are Chinese 3. I see some people are concerned. 4. I see that other people are not concerned | I think 1. I think some of the people are concerned because the rocks could roll down and kill them 2. I think that the horse in the bottom right is probably nervous because of the explosion 3. I think they would have needed a lot of explosives to make that blast because it's pretty big 4. I think this would be a very dangerous job because you could be blown up or crushed by falling rock. | I wonder 1. I wonder what the man with the horse is doing. 2. I wonder if that was a planned explosion? 3. I wonder what the people up top are doing? 4. I wonder why there are so many people
19: Chinese worker camp During the construction of the Union pacific railroad, America had to hire many Chinese workers. Many set up their own camps away from the Americans. Here they could practice their own customs without being looked down on by fellow workers. | I see 1. I see a barber 2. I see their camp has some trees for shade. 3. I see some text around the outside of the picture 4. I see that the camp is pretty clean and orderly. | I think 1. I think it would be hard working here because the climate is different than what their used to. 2. I think some of them might be mad because they couldn't practice their customs among the other workers. 3. I think this picture was in a newspaper because of the text on the outside. | I wonder 1. I wonder where this picture was drawn? 2. I wonder what they are discussing? 3. I wonder what they ate? 4. I wonder why only two of them are wearing hats?
21: Map of the Union Pacific Railroad This is a map of the newly constructed railroad. As you can see, it connected the new western territories and states with the rest of the U.S. Ordinary people could now travel from coast to coast for the first time. | I see 1. I see that the leftmost states had to be redrawn. 2. I see that there are pictures on the side 3. I see there aren't names on some states | I think 1. I think that the map had to be redrawn because the state borders were changed after the map was made. 2. I think this was probably a brochure because of the fold in the middle. 3. I also think this was a brochure because of the pictures on the side. | I wonder 1. I wonder what it would have been like to finally be able to visit the west coast easily? 2. I wonder when this map was made 3. I wonder what the pictures on the sides are for?