FC: Mrs. Bartlett's World History Project By: John Niemeyer
1: Table of Contents | pages 1-2 Mesopotamia pages 3 Mesopotamian pictures pages 4-5 Egypt pages 6 Egyptian pictures pages 7-8 India pages 9 India pictures pages 10-11 China Pages 12 China Pictures
2: Mesopotamia | 1. Most of Mesopotamia is surrounded by two rivers called the Tigris River and Euphrates River, which made Mesopotamia a very fertile area. 2.The environment is very hot and dry; However, every once in a while the rivers would flood, leaving perfect planting soil for the farmers. The bad part of constant flooding is devastating destruction to houses and whole villages. 3. Around 3300 B.C., the first Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia because of the fertile land. The main rulers were priests and kings who. Then came merchants. The poorest people consisted of farmers and slaves. 4.There was science and technology that was used during this time period that is still used today. Geometry was frequently used to help build temples and villages. They innovated the wheel, invented the sail, and some people believe that Mesopotamia was the first to use bronze 5. The people of Mesopotamia were polytheistic, which means Mesopotamia worshiped many gods. Rulers, priests, and heavenly gods were all worshiped because they were believed to have control over the earth. | 1
3: 6. The main law in Mesopotamia was called Hammurabis Code. This stated if someone committed a crime such as stealing they would lose their hand, or if kings or priests didn't have something that other people did, items like children and body parts would be taken away. 7. Every city in Mesopotamia had the same culture. The same food,dances, and same buildins, like ziggurats and palaces. 8. Mesopotamia had their own written language called Cuneiform that was invented in 2300 B.C. It was written on clay tablets because paper was just being invented. Cuneiform consisted of weird designs that only few could read. 9. The slaves were responsible for the construction of the ziggurats, cities, and palaces. If one slave stood up to the kings and priests for how unfair they were bein they would of been killed or banished. 10. Today Mesopotamia is modern day Iraq, Syria, and, Turkey. | 2
4: 3 | Mesopotamia Pictures
5: Egypt | 1. The farmers in Egypt were much more fortunate than the farmers in Mesopotamia. The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers had unpredictable flooding. The flooding from the Nile was as specific as a clock. 2. Because the Nile river had exact dates on which they would flood. The Egyptians made a water system so that every plant would get the same amount of water during the flooding season. 3. To keep track on the dates and times the floods would begin, the Egyptians invented a calender, so they could be give enough time to start building their water system. 4. Since there is hardly any rain in Egypt, they get most of the water from the Nile River. The Nile river is the longest and one of the few rivers that flow North. 5. Egypt's main form of writing was called Hyerogliphics. That consisted of shapes with different meanings. Egypt invented the first paper called papyrus, this was made out of tall plants that were cut into thin sheets, and then glued together by sap. | 4
6: 5 | 6. In 3200 B.C., the villages of Egypt were divided into two kingdoms because of different beliefs and understandings. After much conflict, Upper and Lower Egypt were united once more. 7. The Egyptian kings were called Pharoahs. Unlike Mesopotamia the Kings and priests were even in power. In Egypt it goes from the Pharoahs, Then to priests. The wealthier citizens came next. Then came farmers and slaves. 8. Egyptians believed that pharoahs were gods as well as humans, so they were worshiped and very respected. Pharoahs were to have said to be as splendid as the gods in the heavens. 9. After the death of the pharoahs, large tombs were built called pyramids. The slaves were completely in charge of the construction of these pyramids. Imagine working in a hot climate, harrying heavy stones that were probably over 50 ponds all day, every day, for about two and a half years. 10. The Egyptians believed in after life. The pharoahs were mummified after death so the great kings could live for eternity.
7: 6 | Egyptian Pictures
8: 7 | India | 1. India is located between the Indus and Ganges Rivers, this means that the rivers occasionally flood. The flooding allows India to have good soil for farming. 2. India invented a form of writing called the Harappan language, and a plumbing and sewage system which ran throughout the country. 3. India planned cities on a grid system, which means every city had a specific point. 4. The main religion of India was Hindu, but the country was polytheistic, so the country had many more religions. 5. Challenges that India was constantly dealing with was yearly flooding, monsoons (strong winds), little rain, starvation, and sometimes the rivers changed course. 6. The worlds tallest mountains exist in Northern India. These mountains help protect the country from invasion. The tallest mountain is called Mount Everest, which has made India very popular. 7. No one is sure how people settled in this country, but scientists are sure that India was once part of Africa. Continental drift caused India to slam into Asia millions of years ago.
9: 8 | 8. After thousands of years of decay the strongest cities in India finally collapsed because the buildings weren't strong enough to withstand the power of the rivers constant flooding. 9. The Indus river valley civilization provided an excellent means of transportation for trade goods. India were the masters at trading, they traded gold and silver with countries all the way to Afganistan, and different types of cloth from Persia. 10. One of the main cities, Harappa, is a good example of city planning. This city was made out of mud bricks to protect it from flooding.
10: 9 | India Pictures
11: 10 | China | 1. Two major rivers in china are the Yellow and the Yangzee Rivers, which flow from the mountains in the West to the Pacific Ocean. China also has some of the coldest deserts in the world called the Gobi Desert and the Taklimakan Desert. 2. The two rivers provide plenty of seafood for all of China to enjoy. When the rivers flood, it leaves a fertile soil called loess, this makes it a lot easier for farming. 3. The rivers can be helpful, but sometimes the floods can cause disastrous devastation. Invasions were also very relevant because during this time China didn't really have any protection. 4. China was the first country to have a dynasty. The Empires name was Xia. He was responsible for the flooding control throughout China. 5. The Zhou dynasty produced many innovations to try and make Chinese life easier, such as the roads and canals were built to stimulate trade and agriculture. 6. The Chinese believed that their ancestors were the ones that looked out for them during rough times.
12: 7. Unlike the cities in the Indus or the Fertile Crescent, everything was built out of wood. The wealthy lived in timber-framed houses with walls of clay. The poor lived in small unstable huts. 8. When a girl was between thirteen and sixteen years old, her family arranged for her to see a matchmaker who would decide who would be her husband. 9. Shang society was carefully divided between the nobles and the peasants. These nobles owned land and were very wealthy. The nobles governed the cities in order for local control from the king. 10. Recall that the hieroglyphics from the Egyptians used pictures as their own form of writing. The Chinese written language had absolutely no links to the spoken language. One could read Chinese without being able to speak a word of it. | 11
13: China Pictures | 12