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Neutral Portfolio

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BC: Dedications | I would thank my friend Hamad AlSenafi for helping me Ms.Moore for assigning this project for us to learn Ms.Dunn for letting us use the class time to do the project Ms.Damon and Ms.Sapp for correcting my paper | 22

FC: Abdulaziz AlSayegh Due March 21 2013 7-2

1: My topic is: the Oligocene Epoch. | Table of contents | Topic | Page | Time | 2 | What was occurring | 4 | Plants | 6 | Animals | 9 | Climate | 10 | Summary | 12 | Bibliography | 14 | 1

2: The Oligocene epoch occurred from 33.9 to 23 million years ago | 2

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4: The Oligocene Epoch was from 33.9 to 23 million years ago. The Oligocene had many different types of organisms. An example of an animal that lived there is Hyenedon horridus. An example of a plant that became extinct was the Mesothermal dicotyledons. Many animals such as elephants with tusks appeared. Many forests appeared such as the one that covered all of South America. | 4

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6: During the Oligocene plants expanded and dominated many continents. When the cricetids (ex. voles) first appeared the Mesothermal dicotyledons (type of flower) got extinct. South America was dominated by forests. Open grasslands and savannas increased. Grasses and composites (type of plant) increased a lot in the world. Humid forests became increasingly common in the southern parts of South America. Broad-leaved evergreen vegetation became limited to 35 degrees around equator. On land the first open grasslands faunas (type of flower) appeared. During the Oligocene Epoch many different plants appeared. | Plants | 06

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8: Animals | Mammals began to dominate and new animals appeared during the Oligocene Epoch appearances occurred. First tusked elephants and early horses appeared. In the ocean, marine biotic provinces fragmented as sea dwellers were capable to outstand cooler temperatures. On land, mammals began to dominate everywhere except in Australia. Micro mammals experienced a period of diversification and so did the marsupials in Australia. Hyenedon horridus was a large carnivore. In North America the cricetids (rodents) first appeared. Caviomorph rodents (Ex porcupine) were the only rodents in South America until Plio-Pleistocene. The mid-Oligocene marked by marine regression (decline of many species). In of Western Europe a sudden change in the faunas (types of flowers) occurred. This made immigration of many taxa (types of animals). During the Oligocene period animal migrations were wide spread. | 8

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10: Time and climate | It had vast change of climate and habitat; it was from33.9 to 23 million years ago. It was from the middle of tertiary and end of Paleogene. Even though it was a short 11million there were vast changes in climate and habitat. Ice covered the South Pole but not the North Pole. Warm temperate forests covered much of north Eurasia and North America, and each habitat had different climates in each region. | 10

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12: Summary | It was a short 11 million years but a lot happened in this time. The Oligocene had many changes. Animals have evolved to survive better (adaption) and to survive climate changes. There were many volcanic activities. Habitats and organisms changed a lot. It had variety of climates. There was marine regression that caused many things. Animals that have evolved survived better. The Oligocene Epoch made a difference in the world. | 12

14: Bibliography | "Exploring the Environment." Exploring the Environment. N.P., n.d. Web. 8 July 2009. . "Oligocene." ucmp.berkley. N.P., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2010. . "Oligocene Climate." Home Page. N.P., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. . "Welcome to the USGS - U.S. Geological Survey." Welcome to the USGS - U.S. Geological Survey. N.P., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2009. . "Oligocene." paleobiology. N.P., n.d. Web. 5 Aug. 2007. . " The Leading Pale OS Site on the Net." The Leading Pale OS Site on the Net. N.P., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2008. . | 14

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  • By: Abdulaziz A.
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  • Title: Neutral Portfolio
  • The Oligocene Epoch mixbook Done by: Abdulaziz Alsayegh
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  • Published: about 5 years ago