S: The Pacific Coast Natives!
BC: Have you ever wondered about the Pacific Coast Natives. What they wore? What they ate? How they got around? Well, now you can find out all these things by reading this book. We worked really hard and we hope you enjoy!
FC: The Pacific Coast Natives! | By: Eden, Revital and Andy
1: Table of Contents | Page 2: Geographic Location Page 4: Arrival of the Europeans Page 6: Origins and Beliefs Page 8: Social Structures Page 10: Weapons Page 12: Food Sources and Examples Page 14: Tools Page 16: Role of Men Page 18: Clothing Page 20: Shelter Page 22: Art Page 24: Recreation and Games Page 26: Special Events Page 28:Transportation Page 30:Main Tribes on the Pacific Coast Page 32: Bibliography
2: 2 | The Pacific Coast Natives had a very different geographic location than other zones. The climate on the Pacific Coast was very interesting. In January, their weather was about 0 to -10 degrees Celsius. In July, their weather was between 10 and 15 degrees Celsius. In between those months, the weather was about 10 to 0. They had many different landforms like mountains, foothills, plateau, basins, lowlands, plains and trenches. There was between 1000 – 2000mm of precipitation every year. They also fished a lot. They had pelagic, estuarial and ground fish fishing. On the Pacific Coast, there is usually more than 400 cm of snow every year. There is also about 1200 – 1600 hours of sunshine per year. The Natives depended on their forests for trees to build shelter and other items needed to live. In conclusion, I think that the Natives had a very odd, yet interesting location on our map. | Geographic Location
3: Geographic Location of the Pacific Coast Natives. | 3
4: 3 | Arrival of the Europeans The Pacific Coast is a really long way from Europe, it's cut off by a bunch of mountains. Since it was cut off by a lot of mountains the Pacific Coast was one of the last regions explored by the Europeans. The first Europeans to arrive in the Pacific Coast were a group of Spanish sailors. They traveled north from their shelters in Mexico to get to the Pacific Coast. After the Spanish sailors got to Pacific Coast, Russians and British sailors got to the Pacific Coast. All of them wanted to trade and explore the area. The most important explorer was named, Captain George Vancouver and was sent from England to explore from California to Alaska. Captain Vancouver spent from summer of 1792 to Summer of 1794. On their ships they cruised north, making maps and entering every cave. They did not use any of the Aboriginal Peoples' names.
5: 4 | After many years, Captain Vancouver’s name was used to name Vancouver. By the time they named the city Vancouver, Cpt. Vancouver already made an accurate map of the Pacific Coast. By that time countries knew that the Pacific Coast was ruled by England, no one asked the Aboriginal Peoples how they felt. But the Aboriginal thought that it was their land. The Europeans affected the Aboriginal Peoples a lot and it's still a worry today. | This is a picture of the Europeans meeting the Natives.
6: 5 | The Pacific Coast Natives have many stories to explain creation. The Raven was one of the most important creatures in their myths. The raven is a trickster, but Raven teaches them to live a proper life. One story tells of how they were born from a clamshell and that the people were too afraid to leave the shell, so the Raven tricked them into leaving the shell and live on the earth. They believed that spirits could contact them by dreams, but they kept these encounters private. Many other stories tell how the raven brought useful items to them. I think these stories sound cool. | Origins and Beliefs
7: 6 | This is a raven.
8: The Pacific Coast Natives' social structures was not democratic. Society was ruled by the rich clan. All of the groups of the Pacific Coast were divided into at least 2 clans. Clan membership was inherited through the mother's side of family. There are a lot of classes in society: nobles, commoners and slaves. In society, each extended family had a chief. The oldest family member or the one closest linked to the common ancestor was the chief. The chief would distribute the money among the family. The people with the best status would get more money than people with a worst status. Groups of families lived together which formed villages with a lot of people. Inside each village, families were also ranked, the chief of the most powerful family is the chief of the village. The village chief would put his families crest of the village totem pole. | Social Structure | 7
9: 8 | This is a Pacific Coast family and their chief.
10: Most of the weapons of the Pacific Coast Peoples were made of cedar wood, stone or shells. The weapons they used were: sledge hammers, that were made of stone to split wood. For hunting, they would use snares, bow and arrows, harpoons and dead folk. Since the Pacific Coast Peoples lived next to the Pacific Ocean they had a variety of weapons to fish like: nets, underwater traps, bone and wood hooks, and harpoons. They also used fishing lines made of cedar wood. The Pacific Coast Peoples used a lot of weapons, because hunting and fishing was a huge part of life. | Weapons | 9
11: Native Canadian with weapons. | Stone sledge hammer used to split wood. | 10
12: On the Pacific Coast there were a lot of ways to get food. Since the Natives lived next to an ocean it was easy for them to find animals that lived there. The food they caught most was fish. It was the most important food source for them. They caught several types of fish such as halibut, cod, smelt, herring and salmon. The Pacific Coast Natives also hunted many animals. Some of them included deer, elks, moose, beavers and many others. However, they didn't farm or eat many vegetables, but they did pick fruits that were in season. Bent boxes were used to cook some food. The fish that they ate was usually smoked, and some of their meat was roasted over fires. Everybody helped hunt fish. Their favourite treat to eat was fish eggs. The food that the Natives ate was a variety of types, and it was very interesting too. | Food Sources and Examples | 11
13: 12 | This is a bent box, which was used to store food.
14: Tools | The Pacific Coast Natives had a lot of different types of tools. Most of their tools were made from cedar wood, shells and stones. A sledgehammer was used for splitting wood. When they needed to cook, they used a basket full of water and they put hot rocks in it. Some hunting tools were: bow and arrows, snares, dead falls and harpoons. For fishing they used: nets, under water traps, bone and wood, hooks, harpoons and fish lines made from Ceder trees. I think the Pacific Coast Natives were very clever when making these tools. | 13
15: 14 | This is a sledge hammer. | These are examples of fishing tools.
16: The men on the Pacific Coast did a lot of important things. The men were responsible for hunting in the summer. They would hunt for deer, elk, goat and bear. They were also responsible for building the Long House. It was a really hard job because they had to get a lot of materials. The men were also responsible for fishing. Fishing was a need all year long, so it was a really hard job. The Totem Poles were also carved by men. The men had really hard jobs to do, all those jobs kept men busy. | Role of Men | 15
17: 16 | These are two men hunting.
18: The Pacific Coast Peoples wore very little clothing. Most people would wear capes or ponchos and they were usually barefoot. When men worked, they put their capes around their waist. Often women wore a second cape as a skirt. Sometimes men were naked. They wore root hats to protect their heads from the wind and rain. Most of their clothes were made from cedar bark. The cedar was shredded into fibres, and then it was woven on a loom. Sometimes they used goat or dog fur, sagebrush and bird feathers woven in with the bark. The clothes were often decorated with feathers, porcupine quills, shells, bear claws, and animal teeth. The Pacific Coast Peoples' clothes do not sound very comfortable. | Clothing | 17
19: 18 | This is an example of the Pacific Coast clothing.
20: The Pacific Coast Peoples lived in a permanent home. They spent a lot of time in it because of rain, since it rained a lot trees grew tall and made bigger houses. Each house was built using cedar trees. Cedar trees were essential part of building each house. Each house was occupied by more than one family. To build each house they cut the cedar tree and then carried it to the village. The first thing they start building is the house frame using cedar logs. Then cedar planks were attached to the logs and overlapped them to keep the rain out. To attach the logs to the planks the Pacific Coast Peoples used wooden pegs to be used like nails to hold the wood together. After they put poles to hold the roof so it won’t fall. The Pacific Coast Peoples didn't put any windows in; they would put in a hole in the roof to let smoke from the fire out. The also put in a front door that would keep the warmth in. The roof was built low so it would be easier to heat. All of that was only built by men! | Shelter | 19
21: 20 | This is an example of a long house.
22: Art for the Pacific Coast Natives was very important. They were known for three types of art: basketry, woodworking and weaving. The baskets that were made were used for storage and trading. Hats were also made with the same material as boxes so hats were considered part of basketry too. They were also very important because they were used for protection. Another type of art was called woodworking. In woodworking, people made totem poles, which were carved pieces of wood that would tell the story of a family, which were made of cedar trees. They were also fairly big. Some of them were even 15 m. They were usually painted black, red, blue, white and yellow. The totem poles took most of the village to raise because they were also very heavy. They also made canoes in woodworking. The canoes that they made were passed down from father to son. Only canoe carvers could make the canoes. Bentwood boxes were made of cedar plank. Then they were steamed and put together. | Art | 21
23: Bentwood boxes were used for serving food, and they were also used in ceremonies. Another type of woodworking was making sculptures. Masks were also made and they were very important. Copper masks were a sign of riches. Weaving was another type of art. It was usually a women's job. The women weaved clothes, mats and bed sheets. People used soft cedar bank to weave their items. This cedar bark was collected during the summer. The most common thing that was made was a chillkat blanket. The Natives on the Pacific Coast had a lot of different types of art, and they and what the made was quite amazing too. | 22 | This is one of the many totem poles that were built by the natives. | This is a hat made in basketry by the Pacific Coast Natives. | This is a blanket that the women made using their weaving skills.
24: One of the games that the Pacific Coast Peoples played was doubleball. On the Pacific Coast, doubleball was played by men, but in other cultures it was played by women. They would need to put one wicket facing east and another facing west. The wickets were supposed to go as far as apart as the limits of the camp will go. The game requires lots of teamwork. Each stick is marked by individual device claimed by the owner. The men needed a large field, a goal at either end of the field, a ball made of two small pouches connected by a band, as many sticks as players and red and yellow bands. The men would be divided into two groups. I think that the game of doubleball played by the Pacific Coast Natives sounds like a lot of fun. | Recreation and Games | 23
25: 24 | This is a picture of two Native women playing doubleball.
26: Special Events | The Natives on the Pacific Coast liked to have big parties when they had celebrations. Their celebrations were called a potlatch. A potlatch took place when someone gave birth or got married. A “dignity” potlatch took place when an important person had an embarrassing moment. A potlatch took a while to plan, but lasted for a long time. Sometimes they even lasted for 3 weeks. Most potlatches included singing, dancing and story-telling. Gifts were given according to how wealthy you were. People learned dances for a potlatch. Some dancers wore masks when they performed at ceremonies. The Natives loved having potlatches in their neighborhood, and they went to extremes when they had them. a | 25
27: 26 | This is one of the dances that the Natives performed at their very famous "potlatch".
28: The Pacific Coast Natives used canoes often. The canoes were made from red cedar and birch bark trees. The wood was shaped using hot water and crossed pieces of wood. The skin of dogfish was used to make the canoe smooth. Builders peeled bark from the tree in long sheets, and then the sheets were sewn together and attached to the cedar frame using tree roots. The canoes could carry up to forty people and two tons of trading goods. Raiding canoes were up to seventy five feet in length. The only problem with the canoes was that the canoes could be easily damaged. | Transportation | 27
29: 28 | This is an example of a canoe.
30: There were many different tribes on the Pacific Coast. There were many different tribes that lived in the northern area of the Pacific Coast such as the Tsimshian, Tlingit, Gitsan, Nisha’a, and the Haida tribe. The Tsimshain, Tlingit and Haida tribe were bigger tribes then all the others and they spoke their own language. The Tlingit tribe was also the tribe that controlled the trades that were made. There were also many tribes that lived in the central area of the northwest coast. For example, the Heiltusk, Haisla, Nuxalk and KwaKwaka’waku tribes lived in the central area. There weren't as many tribes in the southern area as in the other areas. A couple of tribes that lived there was the Nuu-cha-nulth and Salish tribes. There were also many other tribes that lived all over the pacific coast. | Main Tribes on the Pacific Coast | 29
31: Some of them are the Slavey, Okangan, Chilcotin, Comax, Sechelt, Liloet, Sekani, Squamish, Thompson, Kutanai, Carrier and Shuswap tribes. As you can see, there were a lot of different tribes, with interesting and also different names. | 30 | These are some of the Native people.
32: Bibliography | 31 | A Comprehensive Look at the Pacific Northwest. 23 Feb 2012.
33: 32 | Cass, James. Oyai, The Salmon Fisherman And Woodworker. Toronto, CANADA. Francis, Daniel. First Peoples and First Contacts. Canada. Oxford University Press. 2000. Kamma, Anne. If you lived with the Indians of the Northwest coast: Scholastic Inc. 2008. Bruchac, James. Native American Games And Stories. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Resources, 2000 Northwest Coast Indians. 15 Feb 2012.
35: “The North West Coastal People.” 2007. 22 February 2012