S: sumatran rainforest
1: Ecology is the relationship between organisms and their environment; someone who studies nature and the organisms within nature are called ecologists. Ecologists can do many different things like teach, be scientists, and work in museums, zoos and aquariums. The “father of Ecology” was Aldo Leopold. He made observations on his farm. | Ecology
2: Desert | World Biomes | Marine | Freshwater
3: Grassland | Savanna | Tundra | Forest
4: Tundra | It is a vast and treeless land which covers about 20% of the Earth's surface. It is usually very cold, and the land is pretty stark. Almost all tundras are located in the Northern Hemisphere. There is barely any vegetation in the tundra, only about 1,700 different species, which isn't very much. These are mostly shrubs, sedges, mosses, lichens and grasses. There are about 400 varieties of flowers. The growing season is only about 50 to 60 days long. There are no trees, except for some birches in the lower latitudes. The ground is always frozen beneath the top
5: Desert | It covers about one fifth of the Earth's surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/year. Although most deserts, such as the Sahara of North Africa and the deserts of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Australia, occur at low latitudes, another kind of desert, cold deserts, occur in the basin and range area of Utah and Nevada and in parts of western Asia. Soils often have abundant nutrients because they need only water to become very productive and have little or no organic matter. There are relatively few large mammals in deserts. Deserts often provide little shelter from the sun for large animals. The dominant animals of warm deserts are nonmammalian vertebrates, such as reptiles.
6: Grassland | This biome has large, rolling terrains of grasses, flowers and herbs. Latitude, soil and local climates for the most part determine what kinds of plants grow in a particular grassland. A grassland is a region where the average annual precipitation is great enough to support grasses, and in some areas a few trees. The precipitation is so erratic that drought and fire prevent large forests from growing. Grasses can survive fires because they grow from the bottom instead of the top. Their stems can grow again after being burned off. The soil of most grasslands is also too thin and dry for trees to survive.
7: savanna | A savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees, which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. Not enough rain falls on a savanna to support forests. Savannas are also known as tropical grasslands. They are found in a wide band on either side of the equator on the edges of tropical rainforests. There are several different types of savannas around the world.
8: Forest | There are 3 different types of forest. | Today, forests occupy approximately one-third of Earth's land area, account for over two-thirds of the leaf area of land plants, and contain about 70% of carbon present in living things. Present-day forest biomes, biological communities that are dominated by trees and other woody vegetation, can be classified according to numerous characteristics, with seasonality being the most widely used. | Tropical Temperate Boreal forests (taiga)
9: Tropical | Temperature is on average 20-25 C and varies little throughout the year Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm. Soil is nutrient-poor and acidic. Decomposition is rapid and soils are subject to heavy leaching. Canopy in tropical forests is multilayered and continuous, allowing little light penetration. Flora is highly diverse: one square kilometer may contain as many as 100 different tree species. Trees are 25-35 m tall, with buttressed trunks and shallow roots, mostly evergreen, with large dark green leaves. Plants such as orchids, bromeliads, vines (lianas), ferns, mosses, and palms are present in tropical forests.
10: Temperature varies from -30 C to 30 C. Precipitation (75-150 cm) is distributed evenly throughout the year. Soil is fertile, enriched with decaying litter. Canopy is moderately dense and allows light to penetrate, resulting in well-developed and richly diversified understory vegetation and stratification of animals. Flora is characterized by 3-4 tree species per square kilometer. Trees are distinguished by broad leaves that are lost annually and include such species as oak, hickory, beech, hemlock, maple, basswood, cottonwood, elm, willow, and spring-flowering herbs. Fauna is represented by squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds, deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear. | deciduous
11: Temperatures are very low. Precipitation is primarily in the form of snow, 40-100 cm annually. Soil is thin, nutrient-poor, and acidic. Canopy permits low light penetration, and as a result, understory is limited. Flora consist mostly of cold-tolerant evergreen conifers with needle-like leaves, such as pine, fir, and spruce. Fauna include woodpeckers, hawks, moose, bear, weasel, lynx, fox, wolf, deer, hares, chipmunks, shrews, and bats. | Taiga
12: Freshwater | Freshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration — usually less than 1%. Plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration | Ponds and lakes Streams and rivers Wetlands
13: Ponds and Lakes | These regions range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Many ponds are seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools) while lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more. Ponds and lakes may have limited species diversity since they are often isolated from one another and from other water sources like rivers and oceans. Temperature varies in ponds and lakes seasonally.
14: Streams and Rivers | These are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction. Streams and rivers can be found everywhere — they get their starts at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakes, and then travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean. The characteristics of a river or stream change during the journey from the source to the mouth. The temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth. The water is also clearer, has higher oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and heterotrophs can be found there. Towards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity — numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found. Toward the mouth of the river/stream, the water becomes murky from all the sediments that it has picked up upstream, decreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the water.
15: Wetlands | Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands. Plant species adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes. These include pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce. Marsh flora also include such species as cypress and gum. Wetlands have the highest species diversity of all ecosystems. Many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and furbearers can be found in the wetlands. Wetlands are not considered freshwater ecosystems as there are some, such as salt marshes, that have high salt concentrations.
16: Oceans Coral reefs Estuaries Marine regions cover about three-fourths of the Earth's surface. Marine algae supply much of the world's oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The evaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land. | Marine
17: Oceans | The largest of all the ecosystems, oceans are very large bodies of water that dominate the Earth's surface. Like ponds and lakes, the ocean regions are separated into separate zones. All four zones have a great diversity of species. Some say that the ocean contains the richest diversity of species even though it contains fewer species than there are on land. The intertidal zone is where the ocean meets the land — sometimes it is submerged and at other times exposed The pelagic zone includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean. The benthic zone is the area below the pelagic zone, but does not include the very deepest parts of the ocean. The deep ocean is the abyssal zone
18: Coral reefs are widely distributed in warm shallow waters. They can be found as barriers along continents, fringing islands, and atolls. Naturally, the dominant organisms in coral reefs are corals. Corals are interesting since they consist of both algae and tissues of animal polyp. Since reef waters tend to be nutritionally poor, corals obtain nutrients through the algae via photosynthesis and also by extending tentacles to obtain plankton from the water. Besides corals, the fauna include several species of microorganisms, invertebrates, fishes, sea urchins, octopuses, and sea stars. | Coral Reefs
19: Estuaries | f | Estuaries are areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean. This mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem. Microflora like algae, and macroflora, such as seaweeds, marsh grasses, and mangrove trees, can be found here. Estuaries support a diverse fauna, including a variety of worms, oysters, crabs, and waterfowl.
20: Abiotic factors of the Rainforest | very warm and wet climate average temperature of 20-34 degrees Celsius very little seasonal change in temperature or the length of a day more direct sunlight hitting land and sea than most other areas annual rainfall of more than 250 centimeters and has average humidity between 77 and 88% It rains more than ninety days a year in the rainforest, and between these rain storms, the warm sun usually heats up the earth little light below the canopy Soil in the tropical rainforests is very nutrient poor
21: Biotic factors of the Rainforest | The combination of heat and moisture makes the tropical rain forest the perfect environment for more then 15 million types of plants and animals. There's 500 bird species There's over 200 species of insects living in one tree The rain forest grows in three levels, the Canopy, which is the tallest level it has trees between 100 and 200 feet tall. millions of butterflies Apes and monkeys are the most common primates in the Tropical Rainforest Most rainforest plants have smooth edged leaves with slick surfaces to shed rain Holds 170,000 of the world's 250,000 known plant species A common estimate is that approximately half of the world's animal species live in rainforest Tropical rainforest waters including rivers, creeks, lakes, and swamps are the home to the majority of freshwater fish species. Frogs are overwhelmingly the most abundant amphibians in the rainforest
22: What is energy? Energy is the ability to cause change in matter or the environment. Define autotrophy and heterotrophy and give 3 examples of each Heterotroph-An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition. Ex: jaguar, tigers,snakes Autoproh-An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs. Ex: orchids, Honey Bee Tree, Benga Bamboo | Energy
23: In nature everything has an energy budget. This is, all organisms must take in energy and then spend that energy in different ways in order to grow and reproduce. Evaluate and explain the following statement in reference to the energy input and output of all organisms. In nature, everything is a tradeoff This statement is kind of like the food pyramid. Everything has to have energy to grow and eat. In nature some animals like mice eat grains but bigger animals such as snakes or hawks have to have the same energy so they get it by eating the mouse. Its all transferred from one organism to another.
24: F O O D
25: W E B
27: Problems | logging Ex:Hundreds of bugs live in one tree. Cutting down the trees give animals less homes to live in and feed of of like banana trees. Mining Ex:It polutes the water that animals drink from, by drinking the water the animals get sick and die. Poachers Ex: if poachers destroy a species of animal they make its predators starve and there prey too overpopulated.
28: Classification | LINNEAN CLASSIFICATION WHAT IS THE LINNEAN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM? The biological sciences to describe and categorize all living things. WHY DO WE CLASSIFY ORGANISMS? It makes it easier to study their properties because animals with the same properties are in the same classification group. WHAT IS BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE? The system of nomenclature using two terms, the first one indicating the genus and the second the species. Organisms scientific name is Panthera tigris tigris
29: Why do we give each organism scientific name? It helps distinguish exactly what it is It helps group different species into relationships. what is your organisms common name? Bengal Tiger Is its common name misleading? Yes it is because Panthera sounds and looks like Panther when its actually a tiger. Is its scientific name descriptive? No it just repeats tigris two times
30: List all the phyla of the kingdom animalia and briefly list the characteristics that define each phylum | 1. poriferra- sponges 2. cnidarea-jellyfish, corals and sea animals 3. platyhelminthes- flatworms 4. nematoda- round worms 5. rotifera- worm-like animals 6. bryozoa- animals that resemble moss but not plants. 7. brachiopoda- lampshells 8. phoronida- tubeworms 9. anelida- segmented worms 10. mollusca- soft bodied animals 11.arthropoda- bodies divided into segments and hard outer body covers 12. echinodermata- starfish 13. hemichordata- corn worms 14. chordata- with vertebrae animals example horse, pigs,fish and birds
31: Cladistics or Phylogenetics | How does cladistics or phylogenetics differ from the classic Linnean system? Linnean stystem -the scientific system of naming organisms devised by the Swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus Cladistics- A system of classification based on the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms, rather than purely on shared features. Many modern taxonomists prefer cladistics to the traditional hierarchies of Linnean classification systems. what is a cladogram and how does it differ from a phylogenetic tree? Cladogram- A branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species. Phylogenetic tree- a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities based upon similarities and differences in their physical and/or genetic characteristics
33: Phylogenetic Tree
34: Politics, Society, and Technology | Dear Jim Penn, Recently, the destruction of the rainforest has gotten my attention. I have several ideas that could help. One idea is to plant another tree seed for every tree that is cut or burned down. That way we are not losing a tremendous amount of oxygen. Another idea is to help poor farmers by improving and intensifying currently existing agricultural projects and promoting alternative cultivation techniques such as permaculture. Permaculture adds a mix of crops to the farmer's palette that both allow him/her to diversify his/her income and enhance degraded soils by restoring nutrients. It also lets them maintain forest systems, soils, and biological diversity at a higher level than conventional agricultural approaches. By reducing wasteful land-use practices, consolidating gains on existing cleared lands, and improving already developed lands, we can diminish the need to clear additional forest. Something else that may be useful is to build research facilities for training local scientists and guides. That way it provides the poor people with jobs and they will no longer need to clear more of the forest for farms. Ecotourism can fund efforts both through park entrance fees and employing locals as guides and in the handicraft and service sectors. I hope these ideas have helped provide some solutions to your problem.
35: Interesting Facts | Tiger There are many interesting facts about this species. The appearance of this animal is amazing. They have orange or yellow and black stripes and weigh 400-575 pounds. They are very fast runners. They are also nocturnal, able climbers, and good swimmers. They have very keen senses and can leap up to 32 feet, and swim up to 18 miles. Bengal Tigers live in Southeast Asia, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, and are found in swamps, deserts, grasslands, and forests. Another name for the Bengal tiger, besides the Indian tiger, is the White tiger. They eat only meat like deer, water buffalo, wild pigs, small mammals, and sometimes even birds; therefore, they are classified as carnivores. This tiger has very strong teeth, and can bite through wood as thick as a 2-by-4. They have two to five babies in a litter and can even have twins. You can hear a Bengal tiger's roar from up to two miles away. The Bengal tiger purrs when it is happy or in pain.
36: Zoo Habitat Design | X=TREE
37: Abiotic & Biotic requirements | g | Eat 40–88 lb of meat at one time so they wont go hungry if they can not find something else to eat the next day In a zoo they eat about 10 pounds a day Drinks several gallons of water a day Shelter is dense thickets, long grass, and tamarisk shrubs along the river banks. Another place tigers like to stay is in old ruins for cover In the zoo they have separate built in shelters that the tigers go into at night for safe keeping. Enclosure: moat should be a minimum of 7 m wide at the top and a minimum of 5 m high on the visitors' side Fences should be at least 5 m high and vertical except for the top 1m which should be turned into the exhibit at about a 45 angle no large trees close to the perimeter fence Bengal tigers like water so it is good to have a pond or stream they could lay in to cool off Boulders near pond so they can climb multiple heights Size=250ftx475