BC: THE END.
FC: RECONSTRUCTION PLAN for TERPAKISTAN | Noelle McManus | Elyse Bologna
2: The 10% plan was proposed by President Lincoln. It stated that amnesty would be given to any Confederate citizens who took an oath of loyalty to the Union. Once 10% of the registered voters from the 1868 presidential election took the oath, the state could form a new state government and create a new constitution. This particular plan was a good start to the Reconstruction process. The Radical Republicans had a different idea for what Reconstruction should be. They wanted to completely change the South from the inside out. Their three main goals were to prevent the Confederacy leaders from regaining power, to make
3: the Republican party a wide institution in the South, and to use the Federal government to help African Americans gain political equality. The last plan for Reconstruction was proposed by President Andrew Johnson. It gave amnesty to Confederate citizens, except officers, officials, or landowners who had property that was $20,000 or more. Between these three plans, they made a good point. The citizens shouldn't all be given pardon, we wouldn't want to repeat exactly what just happened. By expanding the republican party in the South, they were able to help out and spread their ideas. Taking these ideas and combining them together creates a good reconstruction plan.
4: As Reconstruction continued in the U.S. and the people who were in charge realized they were in need of change, multiple Constitutional Amendments were passed in an attempt to solve the problems. During this time, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were passed. The 13th Amendment banned all slavery in the United States. The 14th Amendment granted citizenship to to all people born in the United States except Native Americans. This allowed them to own property, be equally treated in
5: court, and declared no person can be deprived of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" without due process. The 15th Amendment granted suffrage to all adult males, and was not to be denied because of race, color, or prior condition of servitude. These three amendments shaped their country into what it is today. It was a positive light to shed on their dark days. They saw what was wrong and changed it for the better.
6: When dealing with a process like Reconstruction you must beware. The Americans faced hate groups and racism, many people were against what was happening. In Pulaski, Tennessee, former Confederate soldiers started the Ku Klux Klan. They were a group of white men who rode around at night terrorizing Republican party supporters. They burned homes, churches, and schools of African Americans & drove Republicans out of their communities. | Many Southerners were so racist, they went as far as passing laws to keep African Americans from getting to powerful. They created the Blacks Codes. There were three of them: African Americans had to submit to annual labor contracts, African American children had to go into apprenticeships, and African Americans had to acquire licenses in order to get certain jobs. African Americans were not the only people who were being
7: put down in the south. White people were also put down. Referred to as Carpetbaggers, Northerners moved to the South with bags made of carpet fabric. The majority were there for exploitation of the South, for better opportunities, or wanted to help. Some of them eventually went on to become elected or appointed officials. Also, the term Scalawag referred to Southerners who supported Reconstruction and worked with the Republicans. This term meant weak, or useless. | Sometimes, the tension in the South got to such a point, t hat it resorted in violence. April 13, 1873 in Colfax, Louisiana. Contested elections for governor of Louisiana and local offices, a white militia, armed with rifles and a small cannon, over powered freedmen and state military trying to control the Grant Parish courthouse in Colfax. Most of the Freedmen were killed after surrendering and 50 were killed after being held prisoner.
8: As many things as there were bad, there were good. Many people tried very hard to make this time period a time of prosperity and progress in the U.S. The first of these groups was the Freedmen's Bureau. It was established by the federal government and given the task of feeding and clothing war refugees in the South. They issued 30,000 rations, preventing mass starvation in the South. They also helped African Americans find jobs on plantations; they negotiated labor contracts, and established special courts to deal with grievances between workers and planters. The second is William Sherman. After his famous march to the sea, Sherman had thousands of African American recruits that had joined him. He issued a field order that called for 400 acres of land to be divided into 40 acre sections and given to 18,000 freed slave families & others in that area. It gave them all a place to live.
9: Another great example is the Port Royal Experiment. When the plantations in the Sea Islands, off the coast of South Carolina, were abandoned by their white owners, the slaves living their were given the chance to live for themselves. They were very successful at keeping up the land, growing their own crops, hunting and fending for themselves. Eventually they were able to acquire some land of their own, and were granted the chance to found their own town of Mitchelville. This program, however hopeful it was, was ended by President Johnson, and the land was returned to its white owners. It should not have been ended, however. It should of been given more of a chance to prove itself and prosper. Ulysses Grant was the eighteenth president of the United States, and became so after the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. He aided reconstruction by rebuilding it's damaged reputation.
10: Many laws and court cases surrounded and greatly affected this time period. The biggest of these was the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. This was the first impeachment in the history of the U.S. A lengthy battle between the moderate Johnson and the Radical Republican movement dominated Congress for control of Reconstruction policies after the Civil War ended. Johnson was impeached on February 24, 1868 in U.S. House of representatives on eleven articles of impeachment detailing in accordance with article two on the U.S. constitution. House agreed to the Articles on March 2, 1868. Trial began days later & concluded on May 26 with Johnson's acquittal. He gained a historical reputation as an act of political expedience. The second was a series of Supreme Court cases that rendered the 14th Amendment basically useless. The final ruling stated that the Amendment protected rights only on a federal level, and didn't effect the state level. This gave state legislatures the power to take away the rights of African Americans.
11: Another important court case that took place during this time was U.S. vs. Kruikshank. This court case ruled in favor of the attackers in the Colfax Massacre. Basically showing the freedmen in teh South that they had to power at all. Also, The Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 were passed. In the Civil rights Act of 1866, protection of African American civil rights was given after the Civil War. President Johnson vetoed it, but it was passed nevertheless by Congress. In the Civil Rights Act of 1875, everyone regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations. It was passed in Congress in February of 1875. The Military Reconstruction Act wiped out all of Johnson’s programs. Divided the Confederacy into 5 military districts with Union generals placed in each. Each Confederate state had to hold a constitutional convention to design a constitution that was deemed acceptable by Congress. It had to include the right to vote to all adult males, regardless of race. The state had to ratify the constitution and then the 14th Amendment.
12: At the time of Reconstruction, Charles Sumner was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. He was leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts & of the Radical Republicans in the United States. Also at this time, Hiram Revels was the first African American to serve on the U.S. Senate and on Congress. He worked endlessly for equality but was only granted with one reward: the ability to have white and black men work together at the Washington Naval yard. As much as Reconstruction effected the United States, it also hurt people internationally. The Panic of 1873 triggered severe international economic depression in Europe and U.S. Lasted until 1879, known as the long depression. Panic was caused by the fall in demand for silver everywhere. It followed Germany’s decision to abandon the silver standard in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War. The Compromise of 1877settled the disputed 1876 presidential election. Regarded as the second corrupt bargain, ending Reconstruction. It removed all federal troops from the former Confederate states. The appointment of at least one Southern democrat to Hayes’s Cabinet. The construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South.
13: Redemption referred to the overthrowing and defeat of the Radical Republicans by Southern White Democrats, and the end of the Reconstruction era. After Reconstruction ended sharecropping and tenant farming became very popular. Tenant farmers paid rent in currency for the land they farmed. Sharecroppers were farmers that paid rent with a portion of their crops. Rent, supplies (seed, fertilizer, tools, animals). Often as much as half to two-thirds of their crops went to the plantation owners. Many sharecroppers would need more supplies. They could get them from “furnishing merchants” these people provided supplies on credit but with very high interest (40%) laws were made to make sure debts were paid. They were called crop liens. This meant that merchants could take some of their crops to pay off their debts. This eventually led to debt peonage. Which trapped sharecroppers on their land because they couldn’t raise money to pay debts and leave. Also, they weren’t allowed to declare bankruptcy. After all of that, you can see how critical your next decisions will be. Contemplate your next move by re-examining what happened during American reconstruction. Thank you.
15: This political cartoon shows a representation of the Black Codes. African Americans were forced to take literacy tests in order to vote in the South when most white men in the South couldn't read or write either.