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Reconstruction Project

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FC: Reconstruction Proposal for Terpakistan

1: This book proposes a plan for the reconstruction after the recent struggles in Terpakistan. In this book i propose a resolution that will restore balance and prosperity to the great land of Terpakistan. I have based my proposal's off of events, documents, and ideas from the reconstruction time period in United States history. I have hand picked 27 events that took place over the course of American history and wrote why they should or shouldn't be used in mine reconstruction plan for Terpakistan By Dante Verna

2: 10% Plan Lincolns plan on how to bring southern states back in the union. Union forces advanced into Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana in 1862. Lincoln appointed military governors for regions under union control. He began to develop a plan for restoring a regular government in these states. Lincoln began to develop a plan for restoring a regular government. He wanted a newer policy that would reconcile the south with the Union instead of pushing it for treason. In December of 1863 Lincoln set forth his plan, the proclamation of remission and reconstruction. He offered a pardon to all southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the United States and accepted the Union's proclamation concerning slavery. When 10 percent of a states voters in the 1860 presidential election had taken this oath, they were able or organize a new state government.

3: I believe that for the reconstruction plan of Terpakistan the 10 percent plan would be something good to create. Having a plan like the American's 10 percent plan would help rebuild your government in order to restore unity and make it again whole. It helped to restore a regular government, to reconcile the east and west. It also pardons those who wronged and makes them take an oath of loyalty to your country.

4: The Amendments | 13th Amendment In January 13, 1865 the 13th amendment was added to the constitution banning slavery in the United States. The 13th amendment made slavery unconstitutional and illegal and it gave congress the power to enforce this proposal. | Fifteenth Amendment The 15th amendment was passed to the constitution, It declared the right to vote quoting “shall not be denied ... on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” By the year 1870 enough states had ratified the amendment to make it part of the constitution. Southern political polices changed by bringing hundreds of thousands of African Americans into the political process for the first time. White southern males were outraged by this and began to fight back against the federal government and there policies. | I believe that you should use these amendments from the American Constitution as a basis for your own. A amendment like the 13th can ban slavery, make it illegal, and contribute to the ending for racism. The 15th amendment as a basis for making everyone equal regardless of race color slave or non slave giving them the right to vote. The 14th and civil rights act allowing mostly anyone to become a citizen and own property.

5: 14th Amendment/ Civil rights act of 1866 In March of 1866 in efforts to override the black codes, congress passed the civil rights act of 1866. The act granted citizenship to all people born in the United States except Native Americans. It allowed African Americans to own property and stated they were to be treated equally in court. It also gave the federal government the power to sue people that violated these rights. There was a fear that the civil war act might have been overturned in court so the republicans introduced the 14th amendment to the constitution. This amendment granted citizenship to persons born or naturalized in the United States and declared that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property “without sue process of law.” It also declared that no state could deny any person “equal protection of the laws.”with increasing violence in the south moderate republicans were convinced to support the amendment. Congress passed this amendment in June of 1866 and sent it to the states for ratification.

6: The Reconstructions | Presidential Reconstruction Andrew Johnson became president.When Tennessee seceded from the Union. Johnson remained loyal and stayed in the senate making him popular in the north. In the summer of 1865 Johnson began to implement his restoration program, which closely resembled Lincolns plan. In late May 1865, he issued a new proclamation of amnesty to replace the one Lincoln had issued earlier. Johnson offered to pardon all former citizens of the confederacy who took an oath of loyalty to the Union and to return their property. He excluded from this pardon former confederate officers and officials as well as all former confederates who owned property worth more than twenty thousand dollars. These were the rich planter elite who Johnson believed caused the civil war. Those who were excluded could apply to the president individually for a pardon for their acts during the war

7: Johnson issued another proclamation for North Carolina. Under the proclamation, each former confederate state had to call a constitutional convention to revoke it ordinance of succession and ratify the 13th amendment. The convention also had to reject all civil war debts. The former confederate states mostly met Johnson's conditions. Southern states organized their new governments and elected congress officials while Johnson began granting pardons to thousands of southerners. Many members of congress became astonished and angered when they realized southern voters had elected to congress many former confederate officers and political leaders. | Presidential reconstruction should be used to help unite the east and west. It offers a second chance to those that previously wronged and gave back there property. It also shows that the main causers of the war would have to go through the president to be readmitted showing you have a sense of authority and are becoming a strict stronger government

8: The Military Reconstruction Act In March of 1867 congressional republicans passed an act that destroyed Johnson's plan. This plan split the former confederacy into 5 districts. A union general was placed in charge in each of the 5 districts. Each of the confederacy states had a constitutional convention to design a new constitution acceptable to congress. The new constitution gave the right to vote to all male citizens, regardless of their race. After the state ratified there constitution it then had to ratify the fourteenth amendment before it would be allowed to elect people to congress. In 1868 North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas were readmitted to the union.

9: Radical Reconstruction Radicals didn't want to reconcile with the south. The radicals wanted to revolutionize southern institutions, habitat, and manners. There were three main goals to the radical reconstruction. The first of these goals were to prevent leaders of the confederacy from returning the power after the war. The second goal was to make the Republican Party a powerful institution in the south. The last goal was for the federal government to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote in the south | I would advise you to use both the military and Radical reconstruction. The military act spits the confederacy up into five districts with union generals in charge. This makes sure the west wont be able to come together and for an army to go against the east again. The radical reconstruction makes sure no leaders from the west will be able to return to power and also former slaves from the west will be able to vote and achieve equality

10: The KKK | A secret society organized in the south. The Ku Klux Klan was one of the largest secret groups in the south. The KKK’s original goal was to rid union troops and carpetbaggers. They also wanted to regain the south and the Democratic Party. The KKK wore white robes with hood and rode around in groups at night terrorizing supporters of the republican government. They broke up meeting held by the republicans, drove Freedman's Bureau out of their communities. They burned down the homes of African American people as well as their homes, school, churches. It wanted to keep African American and white republicans from voting | The Panic of 1873 The nation endured a great economic crisis that occurred under Ulysses S Grant second term of presidency. In 1873 a series of bad railroad investments forced the powerful banking firm of Jay Cooke and company filed bankrupt. This instilled fear in many and became know as the the panic of 1873. This quickly spread through the financial community. It led to the shut down of thousands of businesses and tens of thousands of Americans were thrown out of work. This also greatly hurt the republican party which was depending on grants. In 1874 the democrats won control of the house of representatives and made gains in the senate. The Newly elected democrats launched investigations into the scandal which further embarrassed Grant and the Republican party.

11: Black Codes The black codes in the U.S were any of the many laws put forth in the states of former Confederates after the civil war. In 1865 and 1866 the laws were designed to replace the social controls of slavery that had been removed by the Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the constitution and intended to assure continuation of white supremacy. The black codes limited African American rights in the south. The black codes varied from state to state but they all had the same intent, to keep African Americans in conditions similar to slavery. African Americans were usually required to enter into annual labor contracts. African American children had to accept apprenticeships in some states and could be whipped or beaten during this process. Several state codes set specific work hours for African Americans and required them to get license to work in nonagricultural jobs. The black codes enraged many northerners. The northerners opposed this.

12: The KKK, Black codes, and the panic of 1873 are all failures of American reconstruction that you don't want to use as a basis for restoring the east and west. You want to avoid groups like the KKK that cause destruction and are a threat to African Americans. Black codes is a step in the wrong direction giving whites supremacy and limiting the rights of the blacks in the west will not go over well with the people in the east. Last you want to stay away from events like the panic of 1873. You want to avoid economic crisis's that put tens of thousands of people out of work

14: Carpetbaggers and Scalawags | Carpetbaggers Southerners, mostly Democratic Party supporters, referred to northerners that moved to the south as carpetbaggers. This is because some arrived with suitcases made with carpet fabric. They were viewed as intruders seeking to exploit the south. Some carpetbaggers wanted to take advantage while others hoped to find better opportunities then those that existed for them out west. Many northern school teachers, moved to the south in effort to help educate whites and African Americans. | Scalawags Scalawags were white southerners who worked with the republicans and supported reconstruction. Scalawags are an old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals. The scalawags were a diverse group of people; some were former Whigs who had reluctantly joined the Democratic Party before the war. Some were small farm owners who did not want wealthy planters to regain all the power.

15: Carpetbaggers and Scalawags are good things to have in the reconstruction process of Terpakastian. People from the east will move to the west in effort to help educate whites and African Americans. Scalawags are white and from the south so they will be good to use as a basis for what you want the south to return to. They support reconstruction and don't want the wealthy to regain all the power

16: Freedman Bureau Sherman marched through Georgia and south Carolina and in the process free African America began to follow him and his troops seeking food and shelter. As a result of this the refugee crisis was made, which prompted congress to establish a bureau of refugees, freedman, and abandoned land. This became know as the Freedman bureau. The bureau's objective was to feed and clothe the war refugees in the south by using their surplus army supplies. In September of 1865 the bureau issued almost 30,000 rations a day every day over the course of the next year. These helped mass starvation in the south. The bureau helped previously enslaved people find work on plantations. It helped negotiate the terms on labor contracts with the planters specifying the amount of money workers would receive and the number of hours they were required to work. It made special courts to deal with issues between the workers and there planters. Many northerners supported the bureau, but others opposed it. People that opposed it thought the federal government should take confederate land and distribute it to emancipated African Americans. The idea of taking land from plantation owners was rejected by congress. The bureau also worked closely with northern charities to educate former enslaved African Americans. It provided housing for schools, paid teachers, and helped to start colleges that trained African American teachers

17: The freedman bureau is an absolute necessity to have in your reconstruction. A lot of people will be now suffering in the post time of the war and a group like the freedman's bureau will be able to provide those in need with food and clothing. It will prevent from post war mass starvation. Now that the war is over and African Americans are declared free they will now need jobs. A group similar to the freedman's bureau will help to find them jobs and set contracts for them to work.

18: Redemption In the 1870's democrats had worked to regain control of heir state and local government from the republicans. Southern democrats called for help from all whites to help them "redeem" or save the south from "black republican rule." By appealing white racism and defining the election as a struggle between whites and African Americans . Because of this democrats were able to win back the support of whites who owned small farms and previously supported republicans. In 1876 democrats had taken control of all of the southern state legislator excluding Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. These states were heavily populated with African American Voters, which were protected by the union troops. This helped the republicans to stay in power. | Sharecropping vs. Tenant Farming After the collapse of reconstruction there was no hope for African Americans to be able own there own land in the south. Many African American returned to work for white plantation owners. They worked for either wage or became tenant farmers paying rent for the land they were farming on. Most of the tenant farmers eventually became sharecroppers. They did not pay rent in cash but instead they would pay a share of there crops, which could be as much as two thirds. To cover the rent, cost of seeds, fertilizer, tools and animals furnishing merchants gave sharecroppers there supplies on a credit that had interest rates that went as hight as forty percent.

19: Redemption and Sharecropping i advise you stay away from in your reconstruction process. You don't want people in the west to be calling out for all whites to come together and rise up and fight against black rule. Sharecropping is similar to slavery in my opinion and should be avoided.

20: The Compromise of 1877 In 1876 Rutherford B Hayes was elected the new president over former president Ulysses S Grant. Grants reputation was greatly hurt in the south. Haynes was pro ending radical reconstruction. The democrats nominated Samuel Tilden who was the former governor of New York. Tilden won on hundred and eighty-four electoral votes. Haynes won one hundred and sixty-five electoral votes which left twenty in dispute. There was so much election fraud on both sides that no one could tell who actually won. To resolve this congress appointed a commission of fifteen people consisting of an equal amount of the House, Senate, and supreme court. It featured eight republicans and seven democrats. The voting was eight to seven giving Hayes the electoral vote. After debating southern democrats joined with republicans in a democrat-controlled house of representatives and voted to except the commissions findings giving the elections to Hayes. He would not have one without the support of southern democrats. There was also the removal of all federal from the former confederate states excluding south Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. One southern democrat was appointed to Hayes's cabinet. There was to be construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the south. Last legislation was to help industrialize the south.

21: The compromise of 1877 was a negative that came out of the reconstruction period in the U.S. You don't want controversy over who the new president and fraud being committed in your government. It is imperative that you prevent that from happening because it will look bad in the eyes of the public and could potentially lead to fighting and violence among the people.

22: Sherman's field order No. 15 It was a military order issued during the civil war on January 16, 1865 by general William Tecumshe Sherman. The act allowed for the confiscation of four hundred thousand acres of land along the galactic coast of south Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and divided it into forty acre parcels. On this about eighteen thousand free slave families were to settle . This order had little actual effect because it was revoked by president Andrew Johnson. | Ulysses S Grant He disabled the KKK in south Carolina until 1920. He thought business supported national interest and signed legislation that would protect entrenched businesses. This led to public unrest over money and an increase of corruption. In 1872 Grant was reelected to another term of presidency. He left term in disgrace because of his schemes and he struggled from cancer and trying to finish his memoirs.

23: Hiram Rhodes Revels (February 23,1870- March 3,1871) The first African American to serve in the U.S Senate. He was also was the first African American in the congress. He was a represented Mississippi in 1870 and 1871. He was presumed to be a republican and in January of 1870 he presented an opening prayer in the state Legislature | Charles Sumner In 1856 Charles Sumner was almost beaten to death on the senate by South Carolina representatives Preston Brooks for ridiculing slave owners as pimps. | Sherman's field order no 15 was a positive to come out of reconstruction. It gave four hundred thousand acers to free black famlies so they would have a place to live. Hiram Revels was also another positive because he was the first African American to serve in the U.S senate. Charles Sumner was a negative of reconstruction, you don't need people fighting on the floor of the senate. It will look bad in the eyes of the public and prevent from the east and the west reuniting. Grant was a positive effect of reconstruction and a great leader. He is a benchmark for what you should want as a leader during the reconstruction time period.

24: The Port Royal Experiment A program that was started during the civil war in which former slaves successfully did labor work on land that was left by plantation owners. In 1861 the Union liberated the sea islands off the coast of South Carolina as well as their main harbor, the port royal. The white residents left leaving behind ten thousand black slaves. Private northern charity organizations became involved to help the former slaves become self-sufficient. The result from this was an idea of what reconstruction could have been. African Americans now showed their ability to work on land and live successfully without being under white control. By selling their extra crops locals acquired small amounts of property. In 1865 Johnson ended the experiment, returning the land to its previous white owners. Port royal had about 65 plantations. I believe that the Port Royal Experiment is a good example for the reconstruction plan of Terpakistan. This is because it was a excellent way of showing that when isolated from whites African Americans can live and survive on their own.

25: The Colfax Massacre In April 1873 the White League, a paramilitary group wanted to restore white rule in Louisiana. The White League clashed with Louisiana's mostly black state militia. The result of the fight was one sided, only three members died while 100 black men were killed. Out of the one hundred that were killed nearly half were murdered after they surrendered. The incident showed president Grant how hard it really would be to guarantee safety as a right to blacks living in the south. | I would go against this in the reconstruction plan for Terpakistan. This shows a bad and negative reflection on what happened in the United States at the time and I do not want something like this to happen to Terpakistan. I am trying to keep everyone equal and at equal rights. The Colfax Massacre is something tragic that happened that will be prevented in Terpakistan, and if something does come about major consequences will be taken.

26: The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson was completely striped of any power he had left. He was charge with "high crime and misdemeanors" in office. Johnson was impeached to prevent him from firing Grant or Stanton, who were both trusted in the eyes of the public. This was negative because whenever a political leader is impeached it makes the government look bad, as well as week. My goal is to avoide anything like this so our political leaders set the right example. | U.S vs. Cruikshank U.S. verse Cruikshank was an important United States Supreme court decision in the United States constitutional law. During U.S. verse Cruikshank there was an issue of a troubling events where an white armed mob in Colfax, Louisiana attacked and killed over one hundred blacks during an election. Three white ringleaders were brought to trial and convicted under the federal Enforcement act of 1870. This act made it a crime to interfere with any citizens constitutional rights. During this U.S. vs. Cruikshank the supreme court ruled on a range of issues. This was one of the earliest deals having to do with the Bill of Rights. | This was an negative effect on the American reconstruction and would not be suggested to be used in the Terpakistan reconstruction plan. I do not want to place any6thing negative into this reconstruction plan, and my goal is to keep it so everyone is equal and that there is no hatred going on, only unity.

27: The Slaughterhouse Cases In order for the Constitution of the Us to be amended, in the slaughterhouse cases, a dramatic event must take place in a state that could have a national effect. Then the Congress as a result of a challenge will enact an amendment to correct the loophole and maintain the integrity of the Constitution. In 1860's in New Orleans in the state of Louisiana, butchers were slaughtering an enormous amount of animals, so many that the wastes of the animals was polluting the drinking waters and rivers of the state. The state decided to move the butchering out of the cit and away from the way water supplies. However, they also decided to form a Corporation that would have the total control of all butchering throughout the state. This Corporation essentially eliminated any other butcher from the process that was not a member. This is called a monopoly | Here in Terpakistan monopolies are not something we want to occur because if one does exist it has the ability to take away fair competition for a product. if this happens then the costumer will be at need of the distributer and if that happens then the distributer can change prices and the availability of the product. Overall having something occur or taking place like the slaughterhouse case would be negative and will not be used in the reconstruction plan for Terpakistan.

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