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Reconstruction Proposal

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Reconstruction Proposal - Page Text Content

FC: Reconstruction Florencia Ferthio & Gabriella D'Alonzo

1: Reconstruction | Reconstruction was the time after the the Civil War. This was a time of rebuilding the things that were lost during the war and to deal with the many problems that the nation faced after the War. Here, the nation had to face the problems of how to bring back the ex-Confederacy states, how to deal with the hostility of the different regions, how to deal with the hard-hit economy, and how to help the newly freed slaves fit into the society with their new rights. The Reconstruction Era spanned for about 12 years. This period of time in America's history have deeply impacted us today. Without this time in history, citizens of today would not have rights, such as the right to vote and to be free, that many of us take for granted today. But to get this far, the era had faced its successes and failures. Here in this proposal we will look into the history of the Reconstruction and decide its successes and failures in order to help the Terpakistan nation.

2: 10- Percent Plan 1863-1865 The war wasn’t over yet, but the Union just won two victories at the battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863. A new proposal for a reconstruction was presented by President Abraham Lincoln in attempt to reunify the North and South after the war was over. Lincoln believed that the Confederacy never really became their own country, or legally seceded from the Union, so his plan was more lenient. The Ten-Percent Plan was based on a 10 percentage in population of any succeeded states. Any southern states could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters in the election of 1860 swore an oath of allegiance to the Union. Once the 10 percent is reached, voters elect delegates to revise state constitutions and create a new state government. The percent was so low to gain a low expectation, and to be prepared for any percentage and be able to accept such a wide range of percentages. This way there will be an easy access to gain back the Union with the North and South. Lincoln contributed to the plan by protecting private property owned by southerners. Republicans in Congress supported this plan because they too, along with Lincoln believed it was a quick way to end war. Lincoln was afraid of a reconnection between the North and South. He feared it might not happen if the fighting didn’t stop quickly enough. In 1863 however, many Democrats decided to call a truce and a resolution, giving in to the plan. Lincoln’s 10-percent plan was an attempt at a peaceful Southern surrender. | The 10-percent plan was not successful because the Radical Republicans were not very fond of it. The Radical Republicans wanted strict laws and strict ways of Reconstruction and a 10-percentage of population was not a majority leaving it weak as a plan. They believed it was very lenient towards the South, which is a good example of something Terpakistan should not repeat. Within the succeeding states, the people who abide by Lincoln’s was only 10-percent. This accomplishes nothing because the majority still had their own opinions, leaving problems in the future of rebellion again. Nothing really was reached, and Lincoln was assassinated, leaving the plan unaccountable. No one continued it afterwards.

3: Presidential Reconstruction 1865-1867 Sherman’s Special Field Orders, No. 15 During the American Civil War, January 16, 1865, military orders called Sherman’s Special Field Orders were issued by General William Tecumseh Sherman. This order confiscated land along the Atlantic coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida including a total area of 400,000 acres preserved especially for 18,000 freed slave families and blacks who already were around the area. Included in the Field Orders was Sherman’s March to the Sea, issuing a “total war” effect throughout areas of Georgia. However, the orders gave very little effect. It could have been because of the timing in the fall of Lincoln’s assassination and new presidency of Andrew Johnson. Sherman’s Special Field Orders, No. 15 gave little effect. I feel as though the order was not thought out enough. The area was confiscated and given to blacks, but it was not protected from other southern whites who would want to take over. Obviously white overseers would be angry that African Americans were gaining land, so it would quickly come to a halt and there would be no outcome to prove a political point and change for Reconstruction. None of that happened here so Terpakistan should not follow this order to make a political statement of Reconstruction. Port Royal Experiment The Port Royal Experiment allowed former slaves to work on abandoned land of plantation owners. In 1861 the Union began freeing Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina including their harbor, Port Royal. The result was a fleeing of many white southerners, and a majority of abandoned black slaves, up to 10,000. Northerners helped these black slaves become independent, and the result was looking like a successful Reconstruction. The African Americans were demonstrating their ability to work on land independently without an overseer. They had given tasks for themselves, picking cotton, planting, hunting, and growing crops of their own. African Americans were given credit for founding Mitchelville, on Hilton Head Island by General Mitchel.

4: Yet, in 1865 President Andrew Johnson ended the experiment. Immediately, there is a sense that what was just gained is lost. In a way, much was gained in this experiment because Reconstruction was actually looking as if it was pursuing. The idea was decent, but the outcome was opposite because there was none. Johnson ended the experiment and quickly things went back to normal, therefore this was not an effective experiment and Terpakistan should not follow these instructions because someone who is in power could easily shut a system like this down. Between the end of the 10-percent plan and the beginning of the Presidential Reconstruction, Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 and replaced by vice president, Andrew Johnson. The Radical Republicans thought they were now on the clear path of Reconstruction. Johnson supported plans against the South in the past and believed the South was the cause of the Civil War, yet becoming president turned Johnson a different way against the Radical Republicans, disapproving of any punitive legislation they wished to pass. Johnson wanted a stronger state government instead of a stronger federal government. He believed that the federal government should stay out of economic and social affairs, leaving it very powerless. This is also called the doctrine of Iaissez- faire. After the Civil War Johnson’s feelings did not change. He was soon disapproving and rejecting any plans of the Radical Republicans, or legislation that would affect the economy of the country. He would not allow the Radical Republicans to destroy the plantation system, which encountered private owned pieces of land growing cash crops in the South with the labor of slaves. Johnson began to protect the Southern economics and use of slavery. Johnson stated that he disliked white Southerners, but he continued to protect their income of money and ways of life and prosperity.

5: The Freedmen’s Bureau was passed on March 3, 1865 with a purpose of granting former slaves with food, housing, education, health care, and employment contracts with private landowners legally by Congress. Freedmen, or free African Americans followed Sherman's troops seeking food and shelter on the journey through Georgia and South Carolina. These refugees were given an establishment called the Freedmen's Bureau, and it turned into an establishment soon after. War refugees in the South were supported with clothing and food from any war supplies. Johnson opposed the Freedmen’s Bureau because he believed it would harm the South. The Freedmen’s Bureau was a great step to giving African Americans a step to civilization and equality. Former slaves would be provided needs and goods that are essential for living and surviving. It is a great way to support African Americans and war refugees with clothing, food, and supplies. Especially because Sherman’s troops were adventuring through Georgia and South Carolina fighting and along with their transition from slaves to freemen. The only set back was the president, who vetoed it until it was useless. For so long African Americans were enslaved. They cannot start living their own lives and make a living overnight, help is needed. Terpakistan should create a system of refuge, such as the Freedmen’s Bureau, assisting help for enslaved peoples.

6: Johnson: - Returned any confiscated land to white southerners - Issued pardons to former Confederate officers and government officials. - Appointed governors to supervise the new state constitutions - Agreed to readmit each state that would abolish slavery and approve of the Thirteenth Amendment | The Effects: - Did not ask for consent of the Republicans in Congress - Did not offer any security for former slaves - The pardons given out granted many of the wealthy southerners to gain back their power and control of state governments | However, Johnson was similar to Lincoln. Both men wanted to make sure the Union was restored as fast as possible. Johnson immediately began Presidential Reconstruction and acted on his plans to restore. The Thirteenth Amendment was an addition to the United States Constitution officially outlawing slavery. This didn’t mean it ended it, but it was a great step towards that, labeling it now as a crime. Terpakistan should follow the Thirteenth Amendment, outlawing slavery, or outlawing something that will weaken their Union’s succeeding states, forcing them to join back into the Union and fulfilling the Reconstruction Era along with the equality of African Americans. The Thirteenth Amendment was a first step to giving slaves their equality because it considered them as real people by law. | Johnson did not ask the Republicans in Congress for consent, and they became furious. To make sure the Presidential Reconstruction would not have a negative effect, Congress created the Joint Committee on Reconstruction in late 1865, establishing stricter requirements for a southern state to join back in to the Union.

7: Because Johnson believed it was not the responsibility of the federal government to give protection and education to blacks, the Bureau kept failing to get passed, weakened, and was finally terminated in 1872. A few months later, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, granting citizenship to ALL Americans, except for Native Americans, which takes away from the “all”, yet African Americans, and former slaves were protected more. Congress acted strongly on this Act as President Johnson vetoed it. | Former Slaves: - Can now own land - Sue - Testify in court - Sign legal contracts | Terpakistan should definitely create and pass a Civil Rights Act that includes their former slaves to sue, own land, testify, and make legal deals. If they were born in Terpakistan, and gain citizenship, they are no longer considered immigrants or illegal to the area and should immediately be granted rights as white men in the area are given. This will create a Union effect, which we are gaining. Although Johnson vetoed the bill, enough people voted for it, so it still passed along with the Fourteenth Amendment shortly after. The Amendment granted all males born in the United States of any race citizenship. This was a huge step leading for voting rights. In order to enter the Union for southern states, those succeeding states had to agree with the amendment. In1868 enough states agreed as the Fourteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution. | Still, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment did not automatically grant former slaves to gain equality over night. The Fourteenth Amendment however, did give blacks a greater opportunity to gain citizenship because the law now states no one, not even Supreme Court could deny a black person citizenship. Southern whites were not fond of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment. This led to the killing blacks because of angry mobs and riots. President Johnson dealt with this violence by blaming the Radical Republicans during his infamous “Swing Around the Circle”. Here he traveled criticized Republicans, pro-war Democrats, and blacks throughout the country. In the end Johnson hurt himself, as many northerners turned to the Republican side, and Republicans beat the Democrats in the election of 1866, ending the Presidential Reconstruction period.

8: The President, in a lot of ways was a problem of Reconstruction success. He vetoed many plans and Acts to help the southern former slaves and was against them gaining equality as he showed it in his actions. He protected white southerners and this created an issue for Republican plans of a successful Reconstruction. A major part of the plan for Terpakistan should include a leader who is 100% on the topic of uniting the East and West parts of the area into one again. This way, when the Amendments like the Fourteenth Amendment is passed, violence will be prevented from breaking out. This was because the south still was not ready for a higher status of a black man, mostly because the president (a political leader) was not either as he made his “Swing Around the Circle”. Making sure a president is neutral, the Fourteenth Amendment is a plan to that should be replicated for Terpakistan. | Presidential Reconstruction was similar to Lincoln’s Plan because they both pardoned ex-Confederate citizens if they swore an oath of loyalty to the Union. They both granted the Southern states their own state Constitution. However, the difference was Lincoln’s plan required a 10-percent majority to swear oath into the Union white Presidential Reconstruction had to ratify the Amendments as well as swear oath into the Union with the exception of former Confederate officers and officials and white elite officials who own more than 20,000 dollars in property.

10: Radical Reconstruction 1867-1877 Radical Republicans gained control in the Congress after the election of 1866, where there was a Republican seat change of +18 (18 more) and a Democratic seat change of -2 (two less). Radical Republicans were gaining power in the House of Representatives and Senate along with Congress because of their majority. This way, the Republicans can overpower Johnson in a sense. If he decides to veto a bill, they can still push forward/ In March 1867 Congress passed the First Reconstruction Act also known as the Military Reconstruction Act/ the Reconstruction Act. The Act reduced the succeeding states territory, creating a limited five military districts governed by a Union General. Congress ordered martial law, or a military watch in these territories to maintain order and keep peace. Congress also issued that the southern states need to revise their constitutions, approve of the Fourteenth Amendment, and to allow voting for blacks. To avoid any issues with voting rights for former slaves, a Second Reconstruction Act was passed making the Union troops maintain order with voting and keep charge of voter registration. By passing these Reconstruction Acts, the Radical Republicans hoped to gather a base in the succeeding states to spread the ideas. By 1870, all of the Southern states were back into the Union. Terpakistan would do fine without the Military Reconstruction Act and Radical Reconstruction and should not follow this plan of Reconstruction, like the other Reconstruction plans, the support was half way there, and the plan was not supported with money, funds, and segregation went into effect. By the end of Radical Reconstruction, blacks did not have a status they should have. The new governments of the Southern States established public schools and black literacy rates improved. Although the schools were still segregated and did not receive enough money to fund for the schools, an improvement was occurring to help out the South. Speaking of limiting President Johnson’s power, Congress passed a series of bills involving the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 which did that exactly. Congress needed consent to remove anyone from office, protecting Republicans. Republicans wanted to keep Edwin M. Stanton in office because he was a Republican controlling the United States military. Johnson ignored the act during the summer of 1867 and fired him, replacing Stanton with a Union general Ulysses S. Grant. Even though Grant eventually resigned and put Stanton back in office, it gave Radical Republicans an excuse to get rid of the President by impeaching him.

12: Ulysses S. Grant was a general to the Union Army, and defeated the Confederate military. Eventually he became the 18th President leading the Radical Republicans in attempts to desroy the Confederacy’s slavery and way of governing. He also destroyed the Klu Klux Klan in 1871, a popular association/ organization given a class of a “hate group” against blacks. Their violence was to prevent blacks to become politicians, political leaders, and to vote. This would lead to murder, beatings, whippings, and intimidation. Blacks could also be murdered for no reason at all but for the reason that they were black. The Ku Klux Klan started in 1866 by Confederate soldiers in Pulaski, Tennessee. Because the Republicans attempted to run the Southern states and take over in power and government, Southerners began to strike with secret organizations, the most popular being the KKK, or Ku Klux Klan. The KKK goal was to drive out Union troops and carpetbaggers to regain control of the South totally, involving control of the Democratic Party. The members in white hooded robes would ride in bands at night terrorizing supporters of the Republican Party. KKK members would break up Republican meetings, drive Freedmen's Bureau officials out of their own communities, burned African American homes, schools, and churches in an attempt to keep blacks and white republicans from voting.

14: Radical Republicans believed giving blacks the opportunity to vote would weaken the southern elites. Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment, giving all American men the opportunity to vote. Again, the congress gave the succeeding states the option to ratify the amendment to join back into the Union. By 1870, the amendment became a law. Immediately blacks voted with the Republican side, as the Democratic way was associative with slavery. The Fifteenth Amendment should be followed by Terpakistan to raise citizenship status for former slaves in the Western region. Part of the Reconstruction plan was to gain equality for African Americans and the Amendments were laws which did a great job of doing so because Congress was establishing rights for these former slaves giving them a class in society. Even though it was not a high establishment, the Amendments alone were great accomplishments to get through (passed) as laws.

16: Carpetbaggers- - Also used to describe derision, also referred to cloth bags they used for transporting their personal things; opportunist - White people from the North who moved to the South during Reconstruction from 1867-1877 - Former abolitionists who yearned for equality and continued the struggles for it - Saw Reconstruction in the South as a greater economic and political opportunity - Bought plantations to sell at great prices for profit - Took advantage of poor southerners | Scalawags- - Also used to describe worthless livestock - Supported Reconstruction - Referred to white Republican southerners who took the side of federal Reconstruction - Opposed Confederacy and wished for a new South to be created - Cooperated/ served in Republican governments to make money, profits, and greater opportunities | Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

18: “Redemption” (Redeemers) The end of Reconstruction hits due to the many Democrats now in power enforcing Reconstruction policies. Also, the northern societies were now more focused on their own economic problems rather than creating a better south, or southern society. It was up to Democrats to redeem the South. During the 1870’s Democrats were now working on getting control of the South back from the Republicans, and this involved cheating on elections, or election fraud, and relying on the southern whites to “redeem” Southern rule from “Black Republican” rule. Democrats were able to shift the minds of white landowners who once had the support of the Republicans by showing how the election was a struggle between whites and African Americans. By 1876, the Democrats gained back control of all southern states except Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. In those such states, Union rule was keeping the Republicans in power, and a help of a large African American population. This was a turn around for United States and something we do not want for Terpakistan. Democrats were southerners who relied on slavery for economy, so for them to go into power men a struggle was about to establish itself. After the Amendments are passed in Terpakistan our goal will be to make the southern whites think they would be better off unified with the northern states causing less friction and a faster solution.

19: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson | The impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was the first in United States history. Even though that the main reason of his impeachment was that he was charged with “high crimes and misdemeanors” of refusing and not comply with the Tenure of Office Act by his firing of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, there were many reasons for his impeachment. From the very beginning of his presidency, Johnson was not liked by the Republicans of Congress not only because of being Democratic and Southern roots but because of his actions in presidential office. Johnson was known of vetoing Republican legislation and or the refusing to enforce their legislation. Some of the important legislation that Johnson have vetoed are the Freedmen’s Bureau Act, which expanded the Bureau’s powers, and the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which was a way to override the Black Codes and allowed blacks to own property, have equal treatment in court, and have federal government to sue anyone who violated the law. At the start of his presidency, Johnson went behind the backs of Congress by implementing his Presidential Reconstruction during the recess of Congress. The Presidential Reconstruction plan was almost like Lincoln’s Plan in that they both were for the pardoning of the citizens of the Confederacy by swearing an oath in the loyalty of the Union and excluding Confederate officers. Johnson’s plan excluded also the elite planters, which Johnson believed to have caused the Civil War, who owned more than $20,000 in property. Along with the pardoning of thousands of citizens, Johnson’s Plan called for North Carolina to have state conventions for them to reject their war debts and to also ratify or follow the 13th Amendment in their state in order for them to be able to create their state governments. This plan was to be a model for the rest of the states. His plan also undermined the Freedmen Bureau’s power by returning all the seized properties of the whites of the Confederacy. This combination of challenging of powers by President Johnson made him be hated against the Republicans.

20: Going back to Johnson challenging of the Tenure of Office Act, the firing of Stanton by President Johnson went against the Act because it did not have Congress’ vote to fire Stanton and also the Republicans were supported by Stanton. Along with the challenging of the Tenure of Office Act, Johnson was charged with the undermining of the Reconstruction Program by his actions of firing four Commanders of the military in the South who supported Republicans. Instead of voting for Stanton’s firing, Congress voted to fire or impeaches President Johnson. Johnson was about seven votes away from being convicted for his actions. As you can see, the Impeachment of President Johnson was a good thing because it put an end to some of the unsuccessful programs that Johnson was trying to implement and also put an end to the undermining of Congress’ powers. This challenging of powers would start a chain of more undermining of powers by the ex-Confederate supporters which could lead to the South’s regain of their lost powers of owning slaves and having control of the South’s economy. If Andrew Johnson was not president after Lincoln’s presidency, we thought that the Reconstruction period would be more successful. If the tensions or disagreements were not present between the Republicans and Johnson, the president and the Republicans would have worked together to come up with better plans for Reconstruction of the broken nation instead of shooting down one another’s plans or ideas. Based on this, Terpakistan should have a president that the East fully supports. He or she should try to have plans that people of both sides that is reasonable and almost fair. The president also have to have or make a good relationship with their colleges of their government place. This would make for a cooperation from both the East and West sides and make the plans that were made to be successful and followed smoothly. By presidents having a at least an okay or good relationships with representatives of both sides, he would not have been in the same situation as Andrew Johnson was. Terpakistan should really take into serious consideration of what leader to choose. The people of Terpakistan should be educated on who their candidates are so impeachments like Andrew Johnson would not happen. Terpakistan should not follow the Presidential Reconstruction because of how lenient it is towards the South. If the South had too much power, they would regain the South again, which they did after the Compromise of 1877. Also, the method of how Johnson put out this plan was unacceptable for it was horrible to go behind Congress’ backs to ratify the plan, which might lead to disputes and later, maybe, division of parties.

22: Sharecropping vs. Tenant Farming

24: These types of farming showed to be a failure in the end. Many of the landowners would take advantage of the illiterate and made conditions that were nearly similar to the conditions of slavery. Basically, sharecropping is a type of tenant farming, which a farmer is borrowing a piece of land from a landowner to grow crops and to sell them, giving a part of the profit of the harvest to the landowner to pay off the rent. Both the types of farming involves in having contracts between the farmer and the owner. In most cases, the landowner would cheat the farmer who was renting the piece of land to get certain amounts of the share in profit or crops from the harvests that they will have. The conditions of the contract and the environment were similar to that of slavery that the South had just abolished. The crop-lien system that both the types of farming uses, is a credit system in which when farmers borrowed money or credit before the harvest comes for things like farm materials. After the harvest is done, farmers were required to pay back the loan along with the interest that came with it. This was soon to be a problem when the cotton and other cash crop price drop for many farmers would not be able to pay back their loans. This along with the conditions of sharecropping and tenant farming added to the problems of Reconstruction. This showed one of the corruptions that were present during the Reconstruction period. These types of farming were supposed to be a practice of a way to integrate the newly freed blacks into the Southern economy, but it showed to have negative effects of on the economy itself. Though it was a great step in helping blacks integrate into the society, the drop in the price of crops with the combination the high, unpaid crop-liens that farmers had contributed to the Panic of 1873, which was severe economic crisis stemming from the loss of interest in silver. We thought as an alternative for Terpaskistan in relation to this, better contracts should be made in that the percentages and conditions are equal between both the tenants and owners to resolve the issues of inequality and corruption. Also, as an alternative is to have restrictions on the crop-lien system by allowing only farmers that has great financial stability and credits to be able to borrow money. Another alternative is to find another ways of integrating the ex-slaves into the economy again without the conditions of slavery, maybe such as artisans or as paid house servants. | More on Sharecropping v. Tenant Farming

26: Important Court Cases During Reconstruction | There were several controversial court cases of the Reconstruction Era. They all either challenge a piece of legislation or an amendment. These court cases that took place in the 1870s and the 1880s weakened the policies that Republicans fought to put in place. One of the first cases was the Supreme Court Slaughterhouse Cases in 1873. It was called this because it included a lawsuit against a New Orleans slaughterhouse. These cases ruled that the 14th Amendment protected the rights of people federally, not in states governments. This showed the South’s dislike for the Amendments that were forcefully put on them. Another case was the United States v. Cruikshank of 1876. This case what said that only the states could indict people under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871. This led to many Ku Klux Klan cases left ignored and unpunished, in other words, the governments are allowing the Ku Klux Klan to exist. This case was started by the conviction of three whites who led the Colfax Massacre. The Colfax Massacre was a riot in Colfax, Louisiana on April 13, 1873 that happened during a disputed gubernatorial, of governor, election. The White League, a white organization whose goal is to secure the white power in the South and uses intimidation tactics similar to the KKK, fought against an almost all-black state militia. This massacre resulted in about 100 black men died and more killed in cold blood. The three ringleaders were brought to trial, where they argued that the charges on them, which they were convicted under the Enforcement Act of 1870, were faulty, or incorrect. This led to the Cruikshank case, which the Supreme Court gave a closer look on many of the Acts and legislations passed during the Reconstruction. The Acts and the legislations passed during Reconstruction had the purpose of expanding Federal power, even more in the South, and the Supreme Court was against this. The Supreme Court would agree with the three men being convicted about the indictments against them being “faulty” for the Enforcement Act of 1870 failed to deny certain federal rights to indict people against. The federal rights that should have been denied in the Enforcement Act was the First Amendment of the right of convening in groups and the Second Amendment, which was the right to have weapons; the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, which only protected citizens only from the state actions and not federally; and lastly, the indictments did not say the actions of the three men were centered by race and the disruption of the victims’ right to vote.

27: The last of the cases was the Civil Rights Cases of 1883. These cases the Supreme Court stated that the Civil Rights of 1875 were unlawful, because the Fourteenth Amendment only went for discrimination from government and not from regular people. Restricting people of their personal feelings, such as dislike for a person was argued to denying people’s personal rights. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 said that there was to be no discrimination for everyone is entitled to the same treatment. It prohibited discrimination in all public places such as restaurants, hotels, and stores. Anyone who violated the Act would face a fine of $1000 or $3000 and up to one year in prison. The Civil Rights Cases marked the end of the Radical Reconstruction. These cases show that there were flaws in the Acts and legislation passed during the Reconstruction. Also, it shows the crumbling of the South’s and the federal governments relationships because many of the South is fighting against many of the Acts passed by federal officials. A decay of relationships would have a possibility of turning making the South back to the way they are before the Civil War ended, making Reconstruction a failure even more. We think that Terpakistan should not use the same policies or legislation that the United States came up at this time because of the several flaws that exist in them. Instead, Terpakistan should learn from the flawed policies from during this era to make their own policies or legislation that are well-fitted to their nation and little to no flaws. We think that as a nation, Terpakistan should carefully make acts and legislation and go through the many options of how it could fail to make them bulletproof to the attacks against the opposition. They should take a really close look and nitpick the legislation or policies they are bringing on the table or ratifying so flaws in legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1877 or the Enforcement Act of 1870 does not exist and give equal powers to governments so no disputes would go against the original policy or other policies.

28: Hiram Revels (1827-1901) | He was known as the first African American to serve in the United States Senate and also the first to be in the House of Representatives. Since 2011, six African Americans have served in in the Senate and Revels is one of them. He was born on September 27, 1827, in Fayetteville, North Carolina. His earlier education was from a black woman tutoring him. Revels later worked as an apprentice barber in his brother’s barber shop. Revels later went on to study at Knox College in Illinois, and later studied at a black seminary in Ohio. He became an ordained minister in 1845 of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. As he went around states to preach, Revels experienced the violence that blacks were subjected to even though he was not subjected to it himself. In the 1860s, Revels served in the Civil War in the Union Army in the Chaplain Corps. He helped increase the two black Union regiments in Maryland and Missouri, and also was in the battle of Vicksburg.

29: As a black man, he was a Republican. In 1868, he was elected alderman in Natchez, and later elected to Mississippi State Senate to represent Adams County in 1869. One of the memorable things Revels did in Senate was presenting a prayer in state legislature, which was said to be “one of the most impressive and eloquent prayers that had been delivered in the (Mississippi) State Senate”. The Senate seat required for a candidate to have nine years of citizenship. Many argued that Revels could not be elected because he has only been a citizen for two years, but other argued that since he was of both black and white ancestry, he has been a citizen all his life. In 1870, he was elected into the United States Senate. As a public official, he worked on the Committee of Education and Labor and United States Senate Committee on the District of Columbia. As a Republican, he argued for pardons and reestablishment of full citizenship of ex-Confederates with the condition of them swearing an oath of loyalty to the United States. All throughout his political career, Revels has fought for equality for all. He was known for his great speaking skills. Revel’s Senate term lasted for six years. He went on to be the first president of Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College, or now known as Alcorn State University. In 1876, Revels became a Democrat when he campaigned for the governor’s seat against Governor Adelbert Ames of Mississippi. He became a Democrat because he was against Republicans who took advantage of blacks and kept the issues of Civil War active. Ames and the Carpetbaggers was known to manipulated black votes for personal advantages and for bringing up the issues of the Civil War living. Revels thought that Ames and his people are “corrupt and dishonest.”. Hiram Revels died on January 16, 1901 at the age of 73 in Aberdeen, Mississippi from a paralytic stroke. Hiram Revels showed to be an important figure for this showed how much African Americans have grown in society from the lowest of the low to being above that. But even with this achievement, African Americans were still treated by many as second-class citizens. This also show how Terpakistan would be able to do if they satisfy the goal of not only uniting the nation, but also giving blacks equal rights, which the Reconstruction only slightly did. Even though blacks were allowed to vote and hold office, they were soon faced with the Southern powers regaining strength again when the Union soldiers were not supervising them, making blacks’ rights basically useless. Blacks would be terrorized if they would exercise some of their rights, and it was not until the 1960s when they got full equal rights.

30: Successes of Reconstruction

31: Failures of Reconstruction

32: The 'Rail-Splitter' at Work Repairing the Union" As you can see above in the cartoon, Abraham Lincoln stands on the right side of the drawing holding a rail while Andrew Johnson sits on the globe placed in the left side of the cartoon. Johnson is attempting to "sew" the Union back together on the globe, representing the fix of the North and South as they combine. Lincoln holds a rail from a train track to symbolizes the effects of the railroad system took in place of Reconstruction. From the Civil War, the South’s roads, bridges, and railroads were destroyed even though there were few of them. Reconstruction involved reconstructing the South while money was spent on schools, and infrastructure. This was the symbol of the railroad holding up the globe, to fix the South and earn their first steps of unification Johnson and Lincoln both played major roles in attempts to fix the South and reconstruct their government and society. When Lincoln was in office, he issues plans to unite the North and South, while Johnson took over when Lincoln was assassinated and tried to do what was best for the country. He did however, veto bills such as Amendments and the Freedmen’s bureau that created difficulties for the Radical Republicans this is why he was eventually impeached.

33: The Canning of Charles Sumner | On May 22, 1856 one of the most violent acts took place right on the Senate floor. A South Carolina representative Preston S. Brooks attacked Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner because Charles Sumner made insults against Brook’s cousin, Senator Andrew P. Butler, who supported popular sovereignty during the 1854 Kansas- Nebraska Act. Sumner’s speech on May 19th and 20th was very insulting of Butler and his place of view. It became more personal than anything, and as Sumner was going over his speech at his deck, Brooks attacked Sumner, beating him forcefully with a walking cane. Sumner laid on the floor as he was able to rip his own desk from the bolts in attempt to escape. He lost and regained consciousness shortly after the attacks, but the fight had effected him for three years before returning as Senator. This cartoon depicts the seriousness of political views, how grown men fought each other almost to death because of a view abiding by popular sovereignty. “The Canning of Charles Sumner” gives a great example of the seriousness of the succession of the Southern States and how each move is crucial to he future.

34: The Reconstruction had three main goals to successfully integrate the ex-Confederacy into the Union. The three main goals are the unify the broken nation, to integrate the newly free slave into society with equal opportunities as their white counterparts, and the reform of the Southern society. Reconstruction unified the North and the South, settled the disputes of the 1790s’ states’ rights versus the federal government, and slavery was abolish in all of the Southern states. Although this time period of America’s history had some positive outcomes such as the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, Reconstruction was a failure. The end of the Reconstruction Era was marked with the Compromise of 1877, when the last of the Union’s soldiers were being shipped out of Southern states. The Compromise of 1877 was an informal deal made between the Republicans and the Democrats in Congress that guaranteed the Republicans’ survival in the South. The conditions of the Compromise of 1877 are as followed: the removal of all the federal troops in the ex-Confederate states; having at least one position in the president’s cabinet filled by a Southern Democrat; the building of the transcontinental railroad in the South; having a legislation to have industrialization in the South. The Democrats of the South would in turn accept and follow the terms of respecting the civil rights of freed blacks and to accept approve of Rutherford B.Hayes’ presidency. The Compromise was not really successful because the rights of blacks were not respected, but more so ignored for whites in the South did many things in their power to prevent blacks to have rights, such as putting restrictions on voting rights for blacks. Basically, once all of the Union soldiers pulled out from Southern territories, the old South regained their powers, making black civil rights in the South hopeless. It was not until the 1960s when the fight for black rights were supported by the federal government. In the Congress, Democrats were shooting down Republican ideas and legislation. As for the Reconstruction plans, they too showed some of the failure of the Reconstruction. The 10% Plan, or Lincoln’s Plan, was a failure in the fact that Lincoln died even before the launch of the plan and also the fact that his own party was against it, saying that the plan was not strict enough for the South. The Presidential Reconstruction, or the Johnson’s Plan, showed to be too lenient on the South for it gave out tons of pardons in return for loyalty to the Union, giving way to white landowners to take over again. Republicans were against this plan because of how it gave the South representatives in the federal government, it was too lenient for the South, and it was done behind the backs of Congress. The plan basically did not support the rights of blacks and really just supported the rise of the Old Southern powers. Radical Reconstruction showed to be a failure because Southerners ignored the laws that the Reconstruction had put in place. All of these Reconstruction plans showed that there were problems in the political systems for parties did not agree with each other on issues and there were abusing of powers. | Success or Failure?

35: As the Southern officials and slave owners gained power again, the Southern legislature passed black codes, restricting the liberties of blacks. Here, free slaves were not able to strive in the United States and were otherwise held back from doing so by white men. In some cases, free blacks were banned from immigrating into a particular states. Sharecropping was also in great effect, preventing blacks from gaining a better quality of living. By 1877, Republicans were tired of Reconstruction, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were repealed, and blacks were not gaining the civil rights originally planned. Rights for blacks would have to take yet another decade to go into a full effect. Therefore, the Reconstruction had improvements yet the full effect was not completed making it unsuccessful. There were many incidents of corruptions during the time of Reconstruction. Many people took advantage of blacks even the people who were supposed to help them. In contracts of sharecropping, white landowners would take advantage of poor, illiterate blacks by making unfair contracts that made the poor blacks stay poor. Federal taxes were being raised by the government, but the money raised was poorly distributed for most of it would go to the pockets of government officials. Another example of corruption is how the Freedmen Bureau’s agents were taking advantages of free blacks that they were supposed to help integrate into society. The agents would use their powers to take money from the blacks. Poverty was a big problem in the South. Many of the freed blacks had no jobs and white Southerners. The economy was dropping with the Panic of 1873, or the economic crisis. There were many unpaid credits by farmer of the tenant or sharecropping farmings. The free blacks took the jobs of poor white Southerners because white landowners depended on them ever since the start of slavery. The Jim Crow laws took place after the Reconstruction Era. This was because after the Union left the South alone with the Compromise of 1877 and the South had regained back their place. The Jim Crow laws segregated public schools, public places, and public transportation, restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains. This laws lasted almost a hundred years as it was overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. As you can see, the Reconstruction was filled with flaws that even lasted for centuries.

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